Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences]]> vol. 53 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Simvastatin treatment reduces the cholesterol content of membrane/lipid rafts, implicating the <strong> <em>N</em></strong> -methyl-D-aspartate receptor in anxiety: a literature review]]> ABSTRACT Membrane/lipid rafts (MLRs) are plasmalemmal microdomains that are essential for neuronal signaling and synaptic development/stabilization. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase (statins) can disable the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor through disruption of MLRs and, in turn, decrease NMDA-mediated anxiety. This hypothesis will contribute to understanding the critical roles of simvastatin in treating anxiety via the NMDA receptor. <![CDATA[Design and preparation of a novel colon-targeted tablet of hydrocortisone]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to design a new colon-targeted drug delivery system based on chitosan. The properties of the films were studied to obtain useful information about the possible applications of composite films. The composite films were used in a bilayer system to investigate their feasibility as coating materials. Tensile strength, swelling degree, solubility, biodegradation degree, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigations showed that the composite film was formed when chitosan and gelatin were reacted jointly. The results showed that a 6:4 blend ratio was the optimal chitosan/gelatin blend ratio. In vitro drug release results indicated that the Eudragit- and chitosan/gelatin-bilayer coating system prevented drug release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated gastric fluid (SGF). However, the drug release from a bilayer-coated tablet in SCF increased over time, and the drug was almost completely released after 24h. Overall, colon-targeted drug delivery was achieved by using a chitosan/gelatin complex film and a multilayer coating system. <![CDATA[Solid lipid nanoparticles of irbesartan: preparation, characterization, optimization and pharmacokinetic studies]]> ABSTRACT Irbesartan is an antihypertensive with limited bioavailability and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) is one of the approaches to improve bioavailability. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared using glyceryl monostearate by solvent emulsification method followed by probe sonication. Irbesartan loaded SLNs were characterized and optimized by parameters like particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The optimized formulation was then further evaluated for the pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats. Irbesartan-loaded SLN of particle size 523.7 nm and 73.8% entrapment efficiency showed good bioavailability in Wistar rats and also showed optimum stability in the studies. The SLN prepared using glyceryl monostearate by solvent emulsification method leads to improve bioavailability of the drug. <![CDATA[Application of HPLC-DAD for the quantification of Lycorine in <strong><em>Galanthus elwesii</em></strong> Hook]]> ABSTRACT In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been used for the quantitative determination of lycorine in the aerial parts and bulbs of G. elwesii Hook. A simple method for the extraction of lycorine in low mass plant samples was employed utilizing pre-packed columns with diatomaceous earth (Extrelut(r)). The chromatographic separation was performed using an isocratic system with a mobile phase of trifluoroacetic acid-water-acetonitrile (0.01:92.5:7.5, v/v/v) applied at a flow rate 1 mL min-1 using diode array detector. The content of lycorine in the bulbs and aerial parts of G. elwesii collected from Demirci (Manisa) was found as 0.130 and 0.162 %, respectively. Additionally, in the bulbs of the specimens collected from Sogucak (Balikesir), lycorine was quantified as 0.055 %, whereas in the aerial parts, it was determined as 0.006 %. The method was validated partially with respect to system specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ). Validation procedures displayed that the method was specific, accurate and precise. <![CDATA[Unsymmetrically substituted imidazolium salts: synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity]]> ABSTRACT Unsymmetrically substituted imidazolium salts were synthesized and characterized using 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The antimicrobial activities of the salts were evaluated using the agar-well diffusion method against 14 bacteria and five yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against seven bacteria and one yeast were also determined. Among the test compounds applied, 1, 2, 3, 6 and 11 showed activities against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacilllus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus thuringiensis, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and Candida trophicalis. However, compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed the highest antimicrobial activities against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacilllus cereus ATCC 11778 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with inhibition zones of 14-20 mm. In addition, compound 6 have only demonstrated activities against Candida trophicalis while compounds 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14 had no effect on test microorganisms. <![CDATA[Hydroethanolic <strong> <em>Allium sativum</em></strong> extract accelerates excision wound healing: evidence for roles of mast-cell infiltration and intracytoplasmic carbohydrate ratio]]> ABSTRACT The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo effect of Allium sativum (garlic) hydroalcoholic extract on wound healing in rats. For this purpose, 72 mature Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=18/each) to receive no treatment, placebo, Cicalfate(r), or 2% Allium sativum (AS) extract, administered topically to the wound area, for 21 days. Following the experimental period, tissue samples were dissected out and underwent to histopathological analyses. Fibroblasts, fibrocytes, mast cells, intra-cytoplasmic carbohydrate ratio, neovascularization, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization were analyzed in all groups. Animals in the treated groups showed significant enhancement in fibroblast, fibrocyte, and mast-cell distribution. Significantly higher neovascularization was observed on day 3 after wound induction in AS-treated animals versus those in the placebo, Cicalfate, and untreated groups (P&lt;0.05). A dose-dependent, significantly higher intra-cytoplasmic carbohydrate storage was observed in treated animals. Our data show that AS promotes wound healing due to its preliminary impact on mast-cell distribution, which enhanced collagen synthesis and upregulated angiogenesis, and shortened the healing process by enhancing the intra-cytoplasmic carbohydrate ratio. <![CDATA[Evaluation of basil extract (<strong> <em>Ocimum basilicum</em></strong> L.) on oxidative, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects in human leukocytes cell cultures exposed to challenging agents]]> ABSTRACT Ocimum is one of the most important genera of the Lamiaceae family. Several studies about basil and its popular use reveal many characteristics of the herb, including its use as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and cardiovascular agents, among others. In this paper, we evaluated genotoxic, oxidative, and anti-inflammatory parameters from the extract of Ocimum basilicum in different concentrations, using human leukocytes cultures exposed to challenging agents. Our results confirm that the O. basilicum extract acts as an antioxidant and effectively reverts or subjugates the effects of high oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide. These actions are attributed to its composition, which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids as well as compounds such as rosmarinic acid, all of which have well-known antioxidant activity. We also show that our basil extract presents anti-inflammatory properties, the mechanism of which is a composed interaction between the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator and the stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Although pharmacodynamics studies are necessary to evaluate the activities in vivo, our results demonstrated that basil could act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and a possible alternative for medicinal treatment. <![CDATA[Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and dexamethasone in binary combination]]> Abstract In this study, conditions were optimized for development of a simple RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of gatifloxacin and dexamethasone in different matrices like pharmaceuticals, human serum and urine. Good separation of gatifloxacin and dexamethasone from the induced degradation products was accomplished using C8 as stationary phase; 0.02 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and methanol (42:58 v/v) as mobile phase. The concentration was measured with DAD at 270 nm. Linearity was observed in the range of 0.000040-0.000280 mol/L for gatifloxacin (r2≥0.999) and 0.000013-0.000091 mol/L for dexamethasone (r2≥0.999). Both the analyte peaks were completely separated from the peaks of induced degradation products as indicated by the peak purity index (≥0.9999 for both analytes). The optimized method is recommended to be used for concurrent analysis of gatifloxacin and dexamethasone in different matrices. <![CDATA[Development and validation of alternative methods by non-aqueous acid-base titration and derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry for quantification of sildenafil in raw material and tablets]]> Sildenafil citrate (SILC) is a potent phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. This study shows two simple, fast and alternative analytical methods for SILC determination by non-aqueous titration and by derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry (DUS) in active pharmaceutical ingredient and/or dosage forms. The quantitation method of SILC active pharmaceutical ingredient by non-aqueous acid-base titration was developed using methanol as solvent and 0.1 mol/L of perchloric acid in acetic acid as titrant. The endpoint was potentiometrically detected. The non-aqueous titration method shows satisfactory repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD 0.70-1.09%). The neutralization reaction occurred in the stoichiometric ratio 1:1 in methanol. The determination of SILC active pharmaceutical ingredient or dosage forms by DUS was developed in the linear range from 10 to 40 µg/mL, in 0.01 mol/L HCl, using the first order zero-peak method at λ 256 nm. The DUS method shows selectivity toward tablets excipients, appropriate linearity (R2 0.9996), trueness (recovery range 98.86-99.30%), repeatability and intermediate precision in three concentration levels (RSD 1.17-1.28%; 1.29-1.71%, respectively). Therefore, the methods developed are excellent alternatives to sophisticated instrumental methods and can be easily applied in any pharmaceutical laboratory routine due to simple and fast executions. <![CDATA[Antimicrobial susceptibility profile and research of <strong><em>mec</em></strong> A and <strong><em>erm</em></strong> genes in coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from platelet concentrates bags]]> Abstract In recent years, several studies have described the clinical impact of bacterial infection associated with transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs). Among the blood components, PCs are responsible for the highest rates of bacterial contamination as well as septic transfusion reactions. We assessed antimicrobial susceptibility profile, resistance to methicillin (MRCoNS), and resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins of group B (MLSB) of 16 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates from an investigation in 691 PCs bags. We then compared conventional and automated phenotypic methods, disc diffusion test (DD) and VITEK(r) 2, respectively as well as phenotypic and genotypic methods (Polymerase Chain Reaction - PCR). All CoNS were susceptible to vancomycin. The disc diffusion test characterized 18.75% as MRCoNS and 37.5% with inducible resistance to MLSB (iMLSB), and with VITEK(r) 2, 6.3% and 31.25%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 18.75% and the erm gene in 31.25% of the isolates. In this study, we found equal percentage values between presence of the mecA gene by PCR and resistance to methicillin using cefoxitin by DD test, evidence of the erm gene by PCR, and iMLSB resistance by automation (VITEK(r) 2). Moreover, we identified three strains with beta-lactamase overproduction, and the occurrence of a bigger mistake was verified when automation was compared with DD test. And we observed that D-test was the most reliable for the detection of iMLSB resistance in Staphylococcus sp. <![CDATA[Grandisin induces apoptosis in leukemic K562 cells]]> Abstract In this study, the potential antileukemic activity of grandisin, a lignan extracted from Piper solmsianum, was evaluated against the leukemic line K562. The cytotoxicity of grandisin (0.018 to 2.365 µM) was evaluated in K562 and normal peripheral blood lymphocytes by Trypan Blue Exclusion and MTT methods after 48h exposure to the drug. In both methods, cellular viability was concentration-dependent and the IC50 values were lower than 0.85µM. Analysis of K562 cells after treatment with grandisin showed that the cell cycle was arrested in the G1 phase with a 12.31% increase, while both S and G2 phases decreased. Morphological studies conducted after the exposure of K562 to grandisin revealed changes consistent with the apoptosis process, which was confirmed by anexin V stain and caspase activation. Thus, lignan grandisin showed antileukemic activities against the K562 cell line and the cell death process occurred via apoptosis. <![CDATA[Floating ability and drug release evaluation of gastroretentive microparticles system containing metronidazole obtained by spray drying]]> Abstract Gastroretentive floating microparticles were developed and evaluated for the controlled metronidazole delivery for treatment of gastric disease. Floating microparticles, varying in proportions of chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or ethylcellulose, were obtained by spray drying. Floating microparticles were characterized by physicochemical and in vitro studies, according to their floating ability and drug delivery. Microparticles presented mean diameter from 1.05 to 2.20 µm. The infrared spectroscopy confirmed the drug encapsulation and showed no chemical linkage between microparticles components. X-ray diffraction showed changes in the drug`s solid state, from crystalline to amorphous, indicating partial drug encapsulation, due to the presence of some crystalline peaks of metronidazole in microparticles. All microparticles floated immediately in contact of simulated gastric fluid and both floating and drug release profiles were dependent of microparticles composition. Microparticles samples constituted by chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose revealed the best relationship between floating duration and drug release, remaining floating during the occurrence of the drug release, ideal condition for the floating gastroretentive systems. <![CDATA[Synthesis and evaluation of platinum complexes with potential antitumor activity]]> Abstract A novel series of platinum (II) complexes was synthesized and the complexes were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against four human cancer cells lines. Five platinum complexes showed activity against at least one tumor cell line. Complexes 3 and 6 were promising, being active, at micromolar concentrations, against all the assayed tumor cell lines. Compound 3 was selected for further studies in mice with Ehrlich solid tumors and it was able to reduce the rate of tumor growth significantly during the first seven days. However, at the end of the experiments, there was no significant difference between the group of animals treated with 3 and the control group. The low solubility of the compound in the assay conditions can explain, at least in part, these results. <![CDATA[Synthesis and <strong> <em>in silico</em></strong> study of 2-furyl(4-{4-[(substituted)sulfonyl]benzyl}-1-piperazinyl)methanone derivatives as suitable therapeutic agents]]> Abstract In the study presented here, a new series of 2-furyl(4-{4-[(substituted)sulfonyl]benzyl}-1-piperazinyl)methanone derivatives was targeted. The synthesis was initiated by the treatment of different secondary amines (1a-h) with 4-bromomethylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) to obtain various 1-{[4-(bromomethyl)phenyl]sulfonyl}amines (3a-h). 2-Furyl(1-piperazinyl)methanone (2-furoyl-1-piperazine; 4) was then dissolved in acetonitrile, with the addition of K2CO3, and the mixture was refluxed for activation. This activated molecule was further treated with equi-molar amounts of 3a-h to form targeted 2-furyl(4-{4-[(substituted)sulfonyl]benzyl}-1-piperazinyl)methanone derivatives (5a-h) in the same reaction set up. The structure confirmation of all the synthesized compounds was carried out by EI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral analysis. The compounds showed good enzyme inhibitory activity. Compound 5h showed excellent inhibitory effect against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase with respective IC50 values of 2.91±0.001 and 4.35±0.004 μM, compared to eserine, a reference standard with IC50 values of 0.04±0.0001 and 0.85±0.001 μM, respectively, against these enzymes. All synthesized molecules were active against almost all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains tested. The cytotoxicity of the molecules was also checked to determine their utility as possible therapeutic agents. <![CDATA[1,3,4-Thiadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole-3(4<strong> <em>H</em></strong> )-thione bearing salicylate moiety: synthesis and evaluation as anti-<strong> <em>Candida albicans</em></strong>]]> Abstract Dramatically increased occurrence of both superficial and invasive fungal infections has been observed. Candida albicans appear to be the main etiological agent of invasive fungal infections. The anti-C. albicans activity of thiosemicarbazide, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thione compounds (compounds 3-23) were investigated. The MIC values of thiadiazole and triazole derivatives 10-23 were in the range of 0.08-0.17 µmol mL-1, while that of fluconazole was 0.052 µmol mL-1. Compound 11 (5-(2-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)phenyl)-N-allyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine) and compound 18 (5-(2-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)phenyl)-4-allyl-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thione) were found to be the most active compounds, with MIC values of 0.08 µmol mL-1. The newly synthesized thiadiazole and triazole compounds (compounds 10-23) showed promising anti-Candida activity. The allyl substituent-bearing compounds 11 and 18 exhibited significant anti-Candida albicans activity and showed a binding mode as well as the fluconazole x-ray structure. <![CDATA[Quality indicators of pharmacists' services in community pharmacies in Paraná State, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Pharmacists and their pharmacies have been evolving in their roles as health promoters in Brazil. Some examples are the recent legislation reaffirming the role of Brazilian pharmacies as health institutions, rather than having only a commercial profile, giving greater clarity to pharmacists about their roles as health care providers. This evolution came with the recognition that is already seen in other developed countries, confirming the need for the pharmacist as a health promoter, and not simply a dispenser of drugs in society. This study has obtained the profile and activities of community pharmacists, as well as the quality indicators of private community pharmacies throughout the State of Paraná through the application of an online survey sent to pharmacists in the state. Out of all pharmacists surveyed, 533 were part of the final analysis, being the pharmacists to complete the survey in full. Participants were mostly female (69.4%) and were, on average, 35.2 ± 9.2 years old. Of these, 60% worked in pharmacy chains and just 37% of all pharmacist respondents were issuing the Declaration of Pharmaceutical Services. The current study showed that many pharmaceutical services are not adopted by pharmacies as these services bring no significant financial reward. Regarding the structure, the Paraná State showed that pharmacies present a good overall structure. The kind of pharmacy (chain or independent) influenced the pharmaceutical services provided and the available structure, where the independent pharmacies provide a wider range of services and have better structure. This study was able to identify the profile and behaviors of pharmacists and also the quality indicators of pharmacies in Paraná State. <![CDATA[Gastroprotective activity of the hydroethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from<strong> <em>Kalanchoe pinnata</em></strong> (Lam.) Pers.]]> ABSTRACT Peptic ulcers are an important pathology, and the search for safer and more effective treatment methods is of paramount importance. In this study, we assess the gastroprotective effects of the hydroethanolic extract (HE) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Kalanchoe pinnata leaves against an ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model in rats. The HE reduced gastric lesions by approximately 47% (400 mg/kg). A significant inhibition of the gastric lesions by 50% was observed after pretreatment with the EAF (200 mg/kg). Quercetrin and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated and identified in the flavonoid fraction (EAF) by HPLC and NMR analyses because this fraction showed the highest gastroprotective effect. This fraction demonstrated high antioxidant activities (CE50=41.91 µg/mL) by DPPH in comparison with Trolox(r) and 11.33 mmol Trolox(r) equivalent by ORAC. In conclusion, the HE and FAE from K. pinnata displayed gastroprotective activity in rats, most likely due to the presence of flavonoids. <![CDATA[Purchase of prescription and OTC medicines in Slovakia: factors influencing patients' expectations and satisfaction]]> ABSTRACT Slovakia is a country where the purchase of OTC (over the counter) medicines outside the pharmacy is not allowed by the government. This study aimed at evaluating patients' satisfaction and acceptance of community pharmacists. Customer's behaviour and expectations influencing the purchase of prescription and OTC medicines were analyzed. A structured questionnaire having 15 multiple-choice questions was used to analyze the descriptive parameters. Data collection lasted from January to February 2014. The sample size consisted of 357 high-school educated individuals under 40 years of age. The survey showed that the prescription and OTC medicines were bought equally. The participants reported a 96.0%, 96.3% and 90.2% satisfaction rate with willingness and approach of the community pharmacist, pharmacy services and provision of drug information respectively. As for the OTC medicines, 89.5% people considered the pharmacist an expert: 88.2% purchased medicines with pharmacist's recommendation, 97.8% needed a professional counselling and 97.2% required a pharmacist's guidance. As for the prescription drugs, only 72.1% considered the pharmacist an expert: 96.3% suggested that physician's prescription was significant and 88.3% considered pharmacist's guidance in the process of selection of prescription medicines nonessential. A comprehensible and respectable conversation was highly expected in regards to both the OTC and prescription medicines. <![CDATA[Continuous wavelet transform methods for the simultaneous determinations and dissolution profiles of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets]]> ABSTRACT Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was proposed for the simultaneous determination and dissolution profiles of valsartan (VAL) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in tablets, without the use of a chemical separation procedure. The CWT approach was applied to the original UV spectra and their ratio spectra in the optimal wavelength ranges. After testing several wavelet families, Mexican hat function-CWT and Daubechies7-CWT (mexh-CWT and db7-CWT, respectively) were found to be suitable for the transformation of the original UV spectra. In the following procedure, mexh-CWT and Coiflets3-CWT (coif3-CWT) were found to be appropriate for the signal analysis of ratio spectra (RS) of VAL/HCT and HCT/VAL. Calibration graphs for VAL and HCT were obtained by measuring db7-CWT and mexh-CWT amplitudes in the transformation of the original absorption spectra and RS-coif-CWT and RS-mexh-CWT amplitudes in the transformation of the ratio spectra. The validity and applicability of the proposed CWT methods were evaluated through the analysis of an independent set of synthetic binary mixtures consisting of VAL and HCT. The proposed signal processing methods were then successfully applied to the simultaneous quantitative evaluation and simultaneous dissolution profiles of the related drugs in commercial tablets, with good agreement reported for the experimental results. <![CDATA[Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and <strong> <em>Lactobacillus gasseri</em></strong> in rats]]> ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030), a greater Lee index (p=0.008), and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect. <![CDATA[Synthesis, antileishmanial activity and QSAR studies of 2-chloro-<strong> <em>N</em></strong> -arylacetamides]]> ABSTRACT We describe herein the synthesis and evaluation of the antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and cytotoxicity to murine macrophages of a series of 2-chloro-N-arylacetamide derivatives. All compounds were active, except one (compound 3). Compound 5 presented the most promising results, showing good antileishmanial activity (CI50=5.39±0.67 µM) and moderate selectivity (SI=6.36), indicating that further development of this class is worthwhile. Preliminary QSAR studies, although not predictive, furnished some insights on the importance of electronic character of aryl substituent to biological activity, as well as an indirect influence of hydrophobicity on activity. <![CDATA[<strong> <em>In vitro</em></strong> intestinal permeability studies, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 6-methylcoumarin after oral and intraperitoneal administration in Wistar rats]]> ABSTRACT 6-Methylcoumarin (6MC) is a semisynthetic coumarin with important in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. In order to continue the pre-clinical characterization of this molecule, in vitro intestinal permeability, plasma profile and tissue distribution after oral administration in rats were studied. The permeability of 6MC was evaluated by the Caco-2 cellular model in both the apical-basal (A-B) and basal-apical (B-A) directions. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were evaluated in rats after oral and intraperitoneal administration at doses of 200 mg/kg. Transport experiments with Caco-2 cells showed that 6MC presented high permeability at all concentrations evaluated. This finding suggested that 6MC could be transported across the gut wall by passive diffusion. The plasma concentration-time curve showed that the maximum concentration (Cmax) was 17.13 ± 2.90 µg/mL at maximum time (Tmax) of 30 min for the oral route and Cmax 26.18 ± 2.47 µg/mL at 6.0 min for the intraperitoneal administration, with elimination constant of (Ke ) 0.0070 min-1 and a short life half time of (T1/2 ) lower that 120 min. The distribution study showed that 6MC has high accumulation in the liver, and widespread distribution in all the organs evaluated. <![CDATA[Development of a mouse computational model for MCNPx based on Digimouse<strong> <sup>(r)</sup></strong> images and dosimetric assays]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to create and test a new mice 3D-voxel phantom named DM_BRA for mice and human first-estimation radiopharmaceutical dosimetry. Previously, the article reviews the state-of-art in animal model development. Images from Digimouse CT database were used in the segmentation and on the generation of the voxelized phantom. Simulations for validation of the DM_BRA model was performed at 0.015, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 4 MeV photons with heart-source. Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAF) data were compared with literature data. The organ masses of DM_BRA correlated well with existing models based on the same dataset; however, few small organ masses hold significant variations. The SAF data in most simulated cases were statistically equal to a significant level of 0.01 to the reference data. <![CDATA[Preparation of mupirocin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules using essential oil of rosemary]]> Abstract The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize mupirocin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules using two different oils and to develop and validate an analytical method for quantitative determination by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean size of the nanoparticles was 233.05 nm and 275.03 nm for nanocapsules with a rosemary oil like oily core and caprylic/capric triglyceride, respectively, and a good polydispersity index below 0.25 for both formulations. The nanocapsules showed good stability when stored at 40 ºC and room temperature for 30 days. The quantitative method was performed with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium ammonium acetate (0.05 M adjusted to pH 5.0 with acetic acid) and acetonitrile 60:40 (v/v); the flow rate was 0.8 mL/min, UV detection at 230 nm. The analytical method was linear in the range of 5.0-15.0 µg/mL, specific for both oils, accurate, precise (intermediate precision RSD = 1.68% and repeatability RSD = 0.81%) and robust under the evaluated conditions. Therefore, this method can be performed for quantification of mupirocin in polymeric nanocapsules containing both oils. <![CDATA[Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in the intensive care unit of a Brazilian teaching hospital]]> Abstract Patients in intensive care unit are prescribed large numbers of drugs, highlighting the need to study potential Drug-Drug Interactions in this environment. The aim of this study was to delineate the prevalence and risk of potential drug-drug interactions between medications administered to patients in an ICU. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted during 12 months, in an adult ICU of a teaching hospital. Inclusion criteria were: prescriptions with 2 or more drugs of patients admitted to the ICU for &gt; 24 hours and age of ≥18 years. Potential Drug-Drug Interactions were quantified and classified through MicromedexTM database. The 369 prescriptions included in this study had 205 different drugs, with an average of 13.04 ± 4.26 (mean ± standard deviation) drugs per prescription. Potential Drug-Drug Interactions were identified in 89% of these, with an average of 5.00 ± 5.06 interactions per prescription. Of the 405 different pairs of potentially interacting drugs identified, moderate and major interactions were present in 74% and 67% of prescriptions, respectively. The most prevalent interaction was between dipyrone and enoxaparin (35.8%), though its clinical occurrence was not observed in this study. The number of potential Drug-Drug Interactions showed significant positive correlations with the length of stay in the intensive care unit, and with the number of prescribed drugs. Acknowledging the high potential for Drug-Drug Interactions in the ICU represents an important step toward improving patient safety and best therapy results. <![CDATA[Development of sunscreen products containing passion fruit seed extract]]> Abstract Application of sunscreen is the most established method of protecting skin from premature aging and photoaging. In this study, the passion fruit seed extract, enriched with biologically beneficial phenolics, was formulated into sun-protective makeup product. The UVB protection of concealer mousse was found have twofold higher sun protection factor (SPF) than the liquid foundation (15.48 ± 1.60 and 5.88 ± 0.30, respectively). The SPF of concealer mousse as well as the liquid foundation containing 0.1% and 0.3% of the passion fruit seed extract were 18.75 ± 0.28, 18.99 ± 0.71 and 9.32 ± 0.88, 9.77 ± 1.37, respectively. Therefore, the concealers with a similar sun-protective efficacy (p&gt;0.05) were included for stability test accordingly. The sun-protective efficacy did not significantly shift (p&gt;0.05) because the 0.1% and 0.3% passion fruit extract concealers had SPF of 18.09 ± 1.48 and 18.60 ± 1.21. The concealers exhibited UVA photoprotection with a boot star rating of 4 and a critical wavelength wider than 370 nm. The safety of 0.1% passion fruit extract concealer mousse was assessed. It did not cause skin irritation when assessed in human volunteers. This sunscreen makeup product provides UVA and UVB protection and is therefore suitable for daily application. <![CDATA[Simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe from combined pharmaceutical products by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography]]> Abstract A rapid and sensitive micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method with UV photodiode-array detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe in fixed dose drug combination. Experimental conditions such as buffer concentration and pH, surfactant concentration, system temperature, applied voltage, injection parameters were optimized in order to improve the efficiency of the separation. The best results were obtained when using fused silica capillary (48 cm length X 50 µm ID) and 25 mM borate buffer electrolyte at pH 9.3 containing 25 mM SDS, + 30 kV applied voltage, 20 ºC system temperature. The separation was achieved in approximately 2 minutes, with a resolution of 7.02, the order of migration being atorvastatin followed by ezetimibe. The analytical performance of the method was verified with regard to linearity, precision, robustness and the limit of detection and quantification were calculated. <![CDATA[Factors associated with adherence to immunomodulator treatment in people with multiple sclerosis]]> Abstract To determine the association between factors and adherence to immunomodulator treatment in people with multiple sclerosis treated in reference centers. Cross-sectional study conducted with 188 people who used immunomodulators in three reference centers in Ceará from March to July 2012. Adherence was assessed using the Moriskscale and factors were assessed using a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and personal characteristics, the disease, the use of immunomodulator and educational activities. The determination of the association was expressed in crude and adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Adherence rate was 46% and after the logistic regression model the adherence to immunomodulator treatment was positively associated with the following factors: age 18-38 years, time of diagnosis and treatment between 6 and 24 months, 0-3.5 score in the Expanded Disability Status Scale, perception of treatment benefits, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, phone contact with the doctor and not missing the return visit. This study is important because it allowed to determine the association between factors and adherence to immunomodulator treatment in multiple sclerosis, contributing to prevention and control actions. <![CDATA[Hepatoprotective effect of Phytosome Curcumin against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in mice]]> Abstract Curcuma longa, which contains curcumin as a major constituent, has been shown many pharmacological effects, but it is limited using in clinical due to low bioavailability. In this study, we developed a phytosome curcumin formulation and evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of phytosome curcumin on paracetamol induced liver damage in mice. Phytosome curcumin (equivalent to curcumin 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight) were given by gastrically and toxicity was induced by paracetamol (500 mg/kg) during 7 days. On the final day animals were sacrificed and liver function markers (ALT, AST), hepatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx) and lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate were estimated. Our data showed that phytosome has stronger hepatoprotective effect compared to curcumin-free. Administration of phytosome curcumin effectively suppressed paracetamol-induced liver injury evidenced by a reduction of lipid peroxidation level, and elevated enzymatic antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase in mice liver tissue. Our study suggests that phytosome curcumin has strong antioxidant activity and potential hepatoprotective effects. <![CDATA[Hydrocortisone release from tablets based on bioresorbable poly(ether-ester-urethane)s]]> Abstract Bioresorbable linear poly(ether-ester-urethane)s with different hydrophilic characteristics were synthesized from triblock copolymers of poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEO) as macrodiols, and L-lysine diisocyanate (LDI) or hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) were used as the required diisocyanates. Macrodiols were obtained by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone (CL). Polyurethanes were synthesized by the reaction of the triblock copolymers with LDI or HDI in solution using stannous 2-ethylhexanoate as catalyst. Polyurethane tablets were fabricated and investigated as prospective drug delivery systems. The effect of the PEO content on the polymers' performance as drug carriers was evaluated. It was found that water provoked more swelling and erosion of polymers with higher contents of PEO. The hydrocortisone release profiles were analyzed using the Ritger-Peppas approximation. An anomalous release behaviour (values of n higher than 0.5) was found for most of the analyzed samples.