Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences]]> vol. 52 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Adherence and/or discontinuation of imatinib mesylate in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia]]> ABSTRACT Adherence to imatinib mesylate improves clinical outcomes and promotes a reduction in health expenditure. However, treatment duration and lack of efficacy decrease adherence to pharmacotherapy, resulting in increased mortality associated with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate and compare adherence and/or discontinuation of imatinib mesylate in different studies from the literature. An integrative review of original articles published between the years of 2004 and 2014 was performed using the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and SciELO. The descriptor "imatinib" was used in two combinations employing the connector AND between terms: "medication adherence'' AND ''imatinib" AND "leukemia'' and ''patient compliance'' AND "imatinib" AND "leukemia". We identified 476 studies, being 14 included in the study. The rates of adherence and discontinuation were diverse, ranging from 19.0 to 97.0% and from 1.8 and 41.0%, respectively, and a high number of longitudinal studies was observed (71.4%). Most studies used questionnaires as an indirect method to assess adherence and factors related to poor adherence were adverse drug reactions, dose changes and unavailability of the medication. Patient education associated with follow up by pharmacists and other health professionals can improve patient adherence and minimize the pharmacotherapy discontinuation. <![CDATA[Effect of metformin on semen quality]]> ABSTRACT Various studies have linked metformin, a universally antidiabetic drug, with semen quality; however, such a direct link has not been established. This review systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of metformin on semen quality, particularly sperm function. We searched the MEDLINE electronic database for English articles and abstracts containing the key words 'metformin' and 'sperm', and relevant articles were reviewed. In summary, metformin appears to have improved and provided positive impact on sperm quality. This effect may be due to the ability of metformin to reduce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, enhance 5'-AMP activated protein kinase activity, and restore the normal levels of pituitary-gonadal hormones. However, further clinical research is still necessary to confirm such effect. <![CDATA[Development and validation of a HPTLC method for analysis of Sunitinib malate]]> ABSTRACT A simple high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been developed and validated for determination of sunitinib malate and possible impurities. The samples were applied in forms of bands on an aluminum TLC plate pre-coated with silica gel and were separated using dichloromethane: methanol: toluene: ammonia solution as the mobile phase. Sunitinib malate was thoroughly separated from impurities including E-isomer, sunitinib N-oxide and impurity B with a retention factor (RF) of 0.35±0.02. Quantitative analysis of sunitinib was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of dichloromethane:methanol:ammonia solution, RF value was 0.53±0.02 for Z isomer. Detection was performed densitometrically in absorbance mode at 430 nm. This method was found to produce sharp, symmetrical, and well resolved peaks. Linear relationship with the coefficients of determination &gt; 0.99 was achieved over the concentration range of 27.34 to 437.5 ng/spot. This method provides robust, replicable and accurate results with acceptable sensitivity. <![CDATA[Gelatin-based microspheres crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and rutin oriented to cosmetics]]> ABSTRACT Glutaraldehyde (GTA) has been extensively used as a gelatin crosslinking agent, however, new natural ones have been suggested as more biocompatible. Polyphenols are possible candidates and the flavonols, such as rutin (RUT), also exhibit potential synergism with sunscreens and antioxidant agents used in cosmetics. In this work, gelatin microspheres (M0) were obtained and crosslinked with GTA 10 mM (MG) or RUT 10 mM (MR), dissolved in acetone:NaOH 0,01M (70:30 v/v). MG exhibited crosslinking extent of 54.4%. Gelatin, M0, MG and MR did not elicit any signs of skin damage, regarding the formation of erythema, the barrier function disruption and negative interference in the stratum corneum hydration. Oily dispersions containing M0, MG or MR, isolated or combined with benzophenone-3 or octyl methoxycinnamate, suggested that the microspheres, at a 5.0% w/w, had no additional chemical or physical photoprotective effect in vitro. Crosslinking with RUT had occurred, but in a lower degree than GTA. Microspheres had not improved sun protection parameters, although, non-treated gelatin interfered positively with the SPF for both UV filters. The in vivo studies demonstrated that these materials had very good skin compatibility. <![CDATA[Analysis of spironolactone polymorphs in active pharmaceutical ingredients and their effect on tablet dissolution profiles]]> ABSTRACT Spironolactone (SPR) is a steroidal drug administered as a potassium-sparing diuretic for high blood pressure treatment. The drug shows incomplete gastrointestinal absorption due to its poor aqueous solubility. The physicochemical properties of SPR in crystal forms I and II suggest that differences in their aqueous solubility may lead to a lack of bioequivalence between solid-state formulations. In this study, SPR polymorphs in five batches of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from three manufacturers were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and solubility measurements. SPR tablets (50 mg) were manufactured in our laboratory using API in pure form II, and API in form II contaminated with form I, which was found in a commercial batch. Physicochemical quality evaluations of the manufactured tablets, along with five SPR tablets marketed in Brazil, were performed, and results indicated differences in their dissolution profiles. In the manufactured tablets, differences were associated with the increased solubility of API in form II contaminated with form I compared to API in pure form II. In the marketed SPR tablets, the formulation composition demonstrated an important role in the dissolution rate of the drug, leading to lack of pharmaceutical equivalence among the drug products. <![CDATA[Astrocytic expression of GFAP and serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in rats treated with different pain relievers]]> ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory cytokines and glial cells, especially microglial cells, have been implicated in persistent pain sensitization. Less is known about the role of astrocytes in pain regulation. This study aimed to observe the expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after short-term administration of central pain relievers in rats not submitted to noxious stimuli. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, receiving for nine days- (1) amitriptyline (Amt-10 mg/kg/day, by gavage); (2) gabapentin (Gb-60 mg/kg/day, by gavage; (3) methadone (Me-4.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route [IP]); (4) morphine (Mo-10 mg/kg/day, IP); or (5) 0.9% saline solution, IP. Brain samples were collected for immunohistochemical study of GFAP expression in the mesencephalon and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The area of GFAP-positive cells was calculated using MetaMorph software and serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum TNF-α levels were decreased in the groups treated with Mo, Me and Gb, but not in the Amt-treated group. IL-1β decreased only in rats treated with Me. The astrocytic expression of GFAP was decreased in the brainstem with all drugs, while it was increased in the NAc with Amt, Me and Mo. <![CDATA[Eudragit <sup>®</sup> FS 30 D polymeric films containing chondroitin sulfate as candidates for use in coating seeking modified delivery of drugs]]> ABSTRACT Polymeric films associating different concentrations of Eudragit(r) FS 30 D (EFS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were produced by casting for the development of a new target-specific site material. Formed films kept a final polymer mass of 4% (w/v) in the following proportions: EFS 100:00 CS (control), EFS 95:05 CS, EFS 90:10 CS and EFS 80:20 CS. They were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, they were characterized by their water vapor permeability and degree of hydration at different conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. No chemical interactions were observed between CS and EFS, suggesting only a physical interaction between them in the different combinations tested. The results suggest that EFS and CS, when combined, may form films that are candidates for coating processes seeking a modified drug delivery, especially due to the synergism between pH dependency and specific biodegradability properties by the colonic microbiota. EFS 90:10 CS proved to be the most suitable for this purpose considering hydration and permeability characteristics of different associations analyzed. <![CDATA[Development and characterization of hyaluronic acid-lysine nanoparticles with potential as innovative dermal filling]]> ABSTRACT Skin aging causes changes such as wrinkles and flaccidity leading to a large demand for aesthetic procedures, including dermal filling. A key agent in dermal filling is hyaluronic acid (HA), which is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan. However, it is a hydrophilic macromolecule that experiences great difficulty in crossing the skin barrier causing most commercial formulations containing it to be injectable, which in turn brings risks since they involve an invasive technique. In that sense, the aim of this study was to develop and characterize nanoparticles obtained from ionic interaction between HA and lysine (Lys) for use as a potential agent of dermal filling for topical application, increasing and improving its applicability and safety. To this end, nanoparticles were obtained by dripping of Lys over HA under magnetic stirring. A nanometric size was confirmed and a suitable surface charge was obtained by zeta potential. Nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with a smooth surface. Interaction between raw materials for preparing nanoparticles was studied by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and an ionic interaction was confirmed. These physicochemical features suggest that obtained nanoparticles can be further used as a topical dermal filling. <![CDATA[Optimization of self-nanoemulsifying formulations for weakly basic lipophilic drugs: role of acidification and experimental design]]> ABSTRACT Formulators face great challenges in adopting systematic approaches for designing self-nanoemulsifying formulations (SNEFs) for different drug categories. In this study, we aimed to build-up an advanced SNEF development framework for weakly basic lipophilic drugs, such as cinnarizine (CN). First, the influence of formulation acidification on CN solubility was investigated. Second, formulation self-emulsification in media with different pH was assessed. Experimentally designed phase diagrams were also utilized for advanced optimization of CN-SNEF. Finally, the optimized formulation was examined using cross polarizing light microscopy for the presence of liquid crystals. CN solubility was significantly enhanced upon external and internal acidification. Among the various fatty acids, oleic acid-based formulations showed superior self-emulsification in all the tested media. Surprisingly, formulation turbidity and droplet size significantly decreased upon equilibration with CN. The design was validated using oleic acid/Imwitor308/Cremophor El (25/25/50), which showed excellent self-nanoemulsification, 43-nm droplet size (for CN-equilibrated formulations), and 88 mg/g CN solubility. In contrast to CN-free formulations, CN-loaded SNEF presented lamellar liquid crystals upon 50% aqueous dilution. These findings confirmed that CN-SNEF efficiency was greatly enhanced upon drug incorporation. The adopted strategy offers fast and accurate development of SNEFs and could be extrapolated for other weakly basic lipophilic drugs. <![CDATA[Quality of life perception of type 1 diabetic patients treated with insulin analogs and receiving medication review with follow-up in a public health care service from Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) reduces the risk of complications but requires a rigorous health care routine. Thus, diabetes education is central to increasing treatment compliance and self-care practices. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) and glycemic control of DM1 patients being treated with insulin analogs and receiving medication review with follow-up. This was a transversal study that included 110 patients registered at the 3rd Health Regional of Ponta Grossa-PR, aged ≥ 18 years, and receiving pharmaceutical care for at least 1 year. The Diabetes Quality of Life Measure (DQOL)-Brazil was used to evaluate QoL. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 with 95% confidence levels. Of the 110 patients, 58.2% were women. The average age was 33.7 years (±10.5), and the average glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value was 8% (±1.4). The mean total DQOL-Brazil score was 2.11 (95% confidence interval, 2.02 - 2.21). All DQOL-Brazil scores were lower in patients with HbA1c ≤ 8%, indicating a better QoL. Good glycemic control, thus, appears to have a positive influence on the QoL, and pharmaceutical interventions are able to contribute to the achievement of therapeutic targets. <![CDATA[Salivary calcium and phosphate stability in different time and temperature storage]]> ABSTRACT The non-invasive collection and inexpensive nature of saliva has made it an attractive sample for use for diagnosis and research on several diseases. Storage circumstances may affect salivary component concentrations. The objective was to analyze calcium and phosphate stability in saliva samples stored at different conditions. Saliva of healthy people was stored and analyzed by spectrophotometry under different time and temperature conditions in order to evaluate calcium and phosphate stability. Calcium concentration was measured by Arsenazo III reaction at 600nm and phosphate by an acid-molybdate method at 650nm. Using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (k), we observed very good agreement (k&gt;0.8) for all samples frozen at -20 oC up to 50 days. Thaw/refreezing cycles can compromise phosphate stability even though there is good agreement (0.61&lt;k&lt;0.8). Because of higher variability for refrigerated samples, they are not the best storage method, although calcium and phosphate levels could be considered stable when the samples were stored at 4 oC for 7 days. Our results revealed that under different conditions, calcium and phosphate levels are stable in saliva samples, and that freezing at -20oC is the storage condition of choice, allowing to accumulate a higher number of samples before analysis, making it suitable for routine and research assays. <![CDATA[The effects of different doses of caffeine on performance, rating of perceived exertion and pain perception in teenagers female karate athletes]]> ABSTRACT The present study set to examine the effects of different doses of caffeine on performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and pain perception in female teenager athletes of karate. Ten female karate athletes (16.8±1.23 years; height 1.59±0.28 m; body-mass 57.73±8.33 kg; BMI 22.71±3.05 kg/m2) participated in the study. A double-blind, randomized, and crossover counterbalanced design was used. In three sessions (with an interval of seven days'), ten female karate athletes ingested low dose (2 mg/kg), moderate dose (5 mg/kg) caffeine, and placebo. Sixty minutes after consumption, they performed the tests as below: one repetition maximum and 60% of one repetition maximum in the leg press, explosive power test, and anaerobic RAST test. After the tests, the participants' RPE (6-20 scale) and pain perception (0-10 scale) were recorded using various categorical scales. The results showed that caffeine ingestion at moderate dose significantly reduced RPE and pain perception values compared with the placebo during muscular endurance test (P=0.0001 and P=0.039, respectively). The findings suggest that caffeine dose of 5 mg/kg body mass appears to improve RPE and pain perception in female teenager athletes of karate. The dose of 2 mg/kg body mass does not confer any additional improvement in performance. <![CDATA[Use of a commercial agarose gel for analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans in mucopolysaccharidoses]]> ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders caused by deficiency of enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Urinary excretion of GAGs is a common feature of MPS, and is considered their major biomarker. We aimed to adapt the GAG electrophoresis method to a commercial agarose gel which would be able to separate urinary GAGs in a simpler way with good sensitivity and reproducibility. Urine samples from patients previously diagnosed with MPS I, IV, and VI were used as electrophoretic standards. Samples from patients on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) were also assessed. Commercial agarose gel electrophoresis was effective, showing proper definition and separation of GAG bands. Detection sensitivity exceeded 0.1 µg and band reproducibility were consistent. GAG bands quantified in urine samples from patients on ERT correlated very strongly (correlation coefficient = 0.98) with total GAG concentrations. This application of gel electrophoresis demonstrates the possibility of monitoring patients with MPS treated with ERT by analyzing separately the GAGs excreted in urine. We suggest this process should be applied to MPS screening as well as to follow-up of patients on treatment. <![CDATA[Exposure to potentially inappropriate medications in Brazilian elderly outpatients with metabolic diseases]]> ABSTRACT Management of pharmacotherapy in elderly with metabolic diseases is challenging and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are risk factors for drug interactions and adverse events. The exposure to PIMs in elderly outpatients with metabolic diseases and its relationship with polypharmacy and other variables was investigated. PIMs prescribed to 207 elderly patients (aged 60 to 96 years) with metabolic diseases who attended a University Hospital of Sao Paulo city, Brazil, from April/2010 to January/2011, were evaluated. PIMs were detected using both 2003 Beers and 2008 STOPP criteria. The association between PIMs and age, gender and polypharmacy was also examined. 2008 STOPP criteria detected more PIMs (44.4 %) than 2003 Beers criteria (16.0%, p&lt;0.001). Beers detected mainly PIMs antihypertensive (clonidine, 20.0%; doxazosin, 10.0%) and antidepressant (fluoxetine, 15.0%; amitriptyline, 10.0%) PIMs. Medicines used for cardiovascular (aspirin, 53.7%) and endocrine system (glibenclamide, 21.3%) were PIMs more frequently detected by 2008 STOPP. Unlike age and gender, polypharmacy increased the risk of PIMs by both 2003 Beers (OR: 4.0, CI95%: 1.2-13.8, p&lt;0.031) and 2008 STOPP (OR: 6.8, CI95%: 3.0-15.3, p&lt;0.001). Beers and STOPP criteria are important tools to evaluate the exposure to PIMs, which is strongly associated with polypharmacy in elderly outpatients with metabolic diseases. <![CDATA[Kinetics study of hydrochlorothiazide lactose liquid state interaction using conventional isothermal arrhenius method under basic and neutral conditions]]> ABSTRACT The Maillard reaction of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and lactose has been previously demonstrated in pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the activation energy of - hydrohlorothiazide and lactose interaction in the liquid state was ascertained under basic and neutral conditions. Conventional isothermal High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique was employed to ascertain the kinetic parameters using Arrhenius method. Results: The activation energy obtained was 82.43 and 100.28 kJ/mol under basic and neutral conditions, respectively. Consequently, it can be inferred that Maillard reaction is significantly affected by pH, which can be used as a control factor whenever the reaction potentially occurs. <![CDATA[A novel approach in mucoadhesive drug delivery system to improve zidovudine intestinal permeability]]> ABSTRACT Zidovudine (AZT) mucoadhesive solid dispersions (SD) were prepared using a sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) mixtures as carrier to enhance the intestinal permeability and bioavailability of zidovudine. SDs were prepared using the co-precipitation method followed by solvent evaporation and characterized according to their physicochemical properties such as particle size, crystallinity, thermal behavior, and liquid uptake ability. In vitro drug dissolution, mucoadhesiveness and AZT intestinal permeability were also determined. Thermal behavior and X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated the amorphous state of AZT in SD systems. The HPMCP polymer restricted the liquid uptake ability in the acid medium; however, this property significantly increased with higher pH values. SDs allowed drug dissolution to occur in a controlled manner. HPMCP decreased the dissolution rates in the acid medium. The mucoadhesiveness of SDs was demonstrated and the permeability of AZT carried in solid dispersions was significantly improved. The effect of the SD carrier polymers on blocking efflux pump can be an important approach to improve the bioavailability of AZT. <![CDATA[Improvement of physicochemical parameters of acyclovir using cocrystallization approach]]> ABSTRACT Acyclovir is an antiviral drug having potent activity against the virus of herpes family and varicella zoster. Unfortunately, drug suffers very poor oral bioavailability (15-30%). The main objective of present study was to develop acyclovir cocrystals with improved solubility which may result in improvement of bioavailability. Hansen solubility approach was used as a tool to predict the cocrystal formation of a drug with selected coformer. Cocrystals of acyclovir with various coformers were screened in order to enhance their water solubility. Cocrystals of the drug were prepared using various methods like solvent evaporation, wet grinding, and antisolvent addition. Formation of cocrystals by solvent evaporation method was found to be better method amongst all. Optimization of cocrystal formation was carried out by employing different solvents as well as the stoichiometric ratio of acyclovir with that of coformer. Synthesis of cocrystals was optimized using water as a solvent system resulted in good agreements. The potential cocrystal formation of acyclovir was characterized by IR, PXRD and DSC techniques. An in-vitro dissolution study was performed to determine the dissolution rate of cocrystals. The results suggest that acyclovir forms cocrystals with tartaric acid and the initial dissolution rate of synthesized cocrystals were considerably faster as compared to pure acyclovir. <![CDATA[Pullulan as a stabilizer agent of polymeric nanocapsules for drug delivery]]> ABSTRACT Polymeric stabilizers have received attention in the preparation of nanostructured systems due to their ability to enhance formulation stability. Considering this, the objective of this work was to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules using the pullulan as a polymeric stabilizer. The nanocapsules were prepared using the interfacial deposition method of preformed polymers and they were characterized in terms of pH, average diameter, polydispersity index, zeta potential, beclomethasone dipropionate content, encapsulation efficiency, photostability and drug release profiles. The formulations showed physicochemical characteristics consistent with nanocarriers for drug delivery such as: average diameter lower than 270 nm, polydispersity indexes lower than 0.2, negative zeta potential (-22.7 to -26.3 mV) and encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. In addition, the nanocapsules were able to delay the beclomethasone dipropionate photodegradation under UVC radiation and by the dialysis bag diffusion technique, the nanocapsules were able to prolong the drug release. Thus, pullulan could be considered an interesting excipient to formulate polymeric nanocapsules. <![CDATA[Development and validation of a method for the determination of folic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations using derivative spectrophotometry]]> ABSTRACT Folic acid is a B complex water-soluble vitamin that is essential to humans, and its deficiency can cause problems including congenital malformations in the fetus as well as heart disease. Most countries affected by diseases associated with a lack of folic acid now supplement foods with the vitamin. There is therefore a need for the development of new analytical procedures able to determine folic acid present in different matrices. This work describes the development of zero order and first order derivative spectrophotometric methods for the determination of folic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations, using 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH as solvent. The methods are shown to be simple, selective, and robust. Good linearity was achieved, with correction coefficients ≥0.9996 and limits of detection and quantification ranging from 0.64 to 0.75 and from 1.80 to 2.85 mg L-1, respectively. Recoveries of 98-104% were obtained in accuracy tests, and precision (as RSD) was between 0.2 and 4.8%. The methods can be used in routine analyses for quality control purposes, offering an alternative to the procedures already reported in the literature. <![CDATA[<strong><em>In vitro</em></strong> evaluation of sustained released matrix tablets containing ibuprofen: a model poorly water-soluble drug]]> ABSTRACT A matrix system was developed that releases ibuprofen (IB) over a 12-hour period and the influence of the polymer type and concentration on the release rate of the drug was evaluated. Tablets containing different concentrations of Carbopol (CP), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), or ethyl cellulose (EC) were prepared using direct compression and the drug content, content uniformity, hardness, friability, dissolution performance, and in vitro release kinetics were examined. Formulated tablets were found to be within acceptable limits for physical and chemical parameters. The release kinetics of the Carbopol(r)971P 8% formulation showed the best linearity (r 2 =0.977) in fitting zero-order kinetics, suggesting the release rate was time independent. The drug release from tablets containing 8% CP was extended over approximately 18 hours and the release kinetics were nearly linear, suggesting that this system has the potential to maintain constant plasma drug concentrations over 12 hours, which could reduce the frequency of administration and the occurrence of adverse effects associated with repeated administration of conventional IB tablets. <![CDATA[Evaluation of the impact of orally administered carbohydrates on postprandial blood glucose levels in different pre-clinical models]]> ABSTRACT We developed a pre-clinical model in which to evaluate the impact of orally administered carbohydrates on postprandial blood glucose levels. For this purpose, we compared the effects of different carbohydrates with well-established glycemic indexes. We orally administered (gavage) increasing amounts (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 g/kg) of sucrose and lactose to rats which had been fasted for 6 h or 15 h, respectively. In part of the experiments we administered frutose (gavagem). Three different models were compared for measuring postprandial blood glucose levels: a) evaluation of interstitial glucose concentrations by using a real time continuous glucose monitoring system; b) evaluation of glucose levels in blood obtained from the rat tail; c) evaluation of serum glucose levels in blood collected after decapitation. Our results showed that blood obtained from the tails of 15-h fasted rats was the best model in which to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates on postprandial blood glucose levels. <![CDATA[Influence of high-dose gamma radiation and particle size on antioxidant properties of Maize ( <strong><em>Zea mays</em></strong> L.) flour]]> ABSTRACT Influence of high-dose gamma radiation and particle size on antioxidant properties of maize (Zea mays L.) flour was studied using response surface methodology. A central composite design based on three levels of each of particle size, in terms of mesh number (40, 60 and 80 meshes), and gamma radiation dose (25, 50 and 75 kGy) was constructed. A statistically significant dose-dependent decrease (p&lt;0.05) in antioxidant properties of gamma irradiated flour was observed. However, an increase in the mesh number (decrease in particle size of flour) resulted in an increase in antioxidant properties. The optimum level of radiation dose to achieve maximum value of responses was found to be 50 kGy for Trolox equivalent total antioxidant activity (TETAOA), 25 kGy for iron chelating ability (ICA), 25 kGy for reducing power (RP) and 75 kGy for linoleic acid reduction capacity (LARC). However, the optimum level of mesh number to achieve desired levels of TETAOA, ICA, RP and LARC was found to be 80 meshes. <![CDATA[Application of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles on an electrochemical H <strong><sub>2</sub></strong> O <strong><sub>2</sub></strong> biosensor]]> ABSTRACT ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a green biochemical method using Corymbia citriodora leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by SEM and XRD. An electrochemical H2O2 biosensor was fabricated by modification of a glassy carbon electrode using our proposed ZnO NPs. The electrochemical sensor showed excellent detection performance towards trace amounts of H2O2, demonstrating that it could potentially be used in clinical applications. <![CDATA[Effects of purine nucleotide administration on purine nucleotide metabolism in brains of heroin-dependent rats]]> ABSTRACT Heroin is known to enhance catabolism and inhibit anabolism of purine nucleotides, leading to purine nucleotide deficiencies in rat brains. Here, we determined the effect of exogenous purine nucleotide administration on purine nucleotide metabolism in the brains of heroin-dependent rats. Heroin was administrated in increasing doses for 9 consecutive days to induce addiction, and the biochemical changes associated with heroin and purine nucleotide administration were compared among the treated groups. HPLC was performed to detect the absolute concentrations of purine nucleotides in the rat brain cortices. The enzymatic activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) in the treated rat cortices were analyzed, and qRT-PCR was performed to determine the relative expression of ADA, XO, adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT), hypoxanthine-guaninephosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), and adenosine kinase (AK). Heroin increased the enzymatic activity of ADA and XO, and up-regulated the transcription of ADA and XO. Alternatively, heroin decreased the transcription of AK, APRT, and HGPRT in the rat cortices. Furthermore, purine nucleotide administration alleviated the effect of heroin on purine nucleotide content, activity of essential purine nucleotide metabolic enzymes, and transcript levels of these genes. Our findings therefore represent a novel, putative approach to the treatment of heroin addiction. <![CDATA[Internal consistency and interrater reliability of the Brazilian version of Martín-Bayarre-Grau (MBG) adherence scale]]> ABSTRACT This paper aims to analyze the measurement equivalence aspects (internal consistency and interrater reliability) of a Brazilian version of Martín-Bayarre-Grau (MBG) adherence questionnaire as part of its cross-cultural adaptation. Item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used as internal consistency estimates. Stability was evaluated through test and retest comparison and expressed through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa with quadratic weighting. ICC for the overall scale was 0.81, indicating an "almost perfect" agreement. However, some cases of "poor" and "slight" agreements were found while analyzing individual items. The translated version of the MBG questionnaire showed good homogeneity (alpha 0.78), higher than cutoff points suggested in the literature. The scale has proved capable of measuring the level of adherence to treatment in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients in a reliable way. <![CDATA[Unsatisfactory glycemic control in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients: predictive factors and negative clinical outcomes with the use of antidiabetic drugs]]> ABSTRACT Many factors can interfere with glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and this patient group has an increased risk of experiencing drug-related negative outcomes (DNO). The aim of this study was to identify the predictive factors of unsatisfactory glycemic control and DNO in this group of patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted collecting data from prescriptions and interviews with 100 patients of the Endocrinology Clinic of the Hospital Complex of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Variables associated with unsatisfactory glycemic control were determined and the DNO associated with antidiabetic drugs identified. Age (&lt;65 years) (OR=4.09), family history of diabetes (OR=3.24), use of combined therapy to treat diabetes (2-4 antidiabetic drugs) (OR=5.13) and presence of DNO (OR=5.92) were found to be predictive factors for poor patient glycemic control. DNO were observed in 49% of the patients and were caused predominantly by ineffectiveness in patients with poor glycemic control (p&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference between groups (satisfactory and unsatisfactory glycemic control) for DNO caused by safety issues (p&gt;0.05). Characterization of the profile of patients with uncontrolled diabetes and of aspects associated with drug treatment can contribute to the planning of interventions to improve patient care.