Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences]]> vol. 53 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Impact Factor: an appropriate criterion for the Qualis journals classification in the Pharmacy area?]]> <![CDATA[Decades of research in drug targeting using gastroretentive drug delivery systems for antihypertensive therapy]]> ABSTRACT The limitations in absorption of drugs with narrow absorption window, or those unstable in the intestinal pH or those exhibiting low solubility at high pH are primary candidates for gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS). The delivery system has been widely explored for its commercial potential for a wide variety of therapeutic agents. GRDDS offer clinical therapeutics for acute and chronic management. Hypertension is a chronic disease that requires long term treatment and its management by patient compliant dosage forms would be clinically useful. Antihypertensives belonging to different classes have proved good candidates for the formulation of GRDDS. The review aims to discuss various GRDDS researched for antihypertensive drugs to increase the gastric residing time, bioavailability, henceforth to reduce the dose of the drug, dosing frequency and increase patient compliance. It also explores various marketed products and the patents filed/granted for GRRDS of antihypertensives. The GRDDS investigated include effervescent and non-effervescent floating drug delivery systems, swelling and expanding systems and bio/mucoadhesive systems. Many other systems that provided research platforms include high density systems, raft forming systems and osmotic delivery systems. In clinical context, wherein combination of antihypertensives is indicated, dual release delivery systems may also be explored. <![CDATA[Arginine enzymatic deprivation and diet restriction for cancer treatment]]> ABSTRACT Recent findings in amino acid metabolism and the differences between normal, healthy cells and neoplastic cells have revealed that targeting single amino acid metabolic enzymes in cancer therapy is a promising strategy for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production and several studies have revealed disturbances in its synthesis and metabolism which could enhance or inhibit tumor cell growth. Consequently, there has been an increased interest in the arginine-depleting enzymes and dietary deprivation of arginine and its precursors as a potential antineoplastic therapy. This review outlines the most recent advances in targeting arginine metabolic pathways in cancer therapy and the different chemo- and radio-therapeutic approaches to be co-applied. <![CDATA[Development and characterization of pullulan-polymethacrylate free films as potential material for enteric drug release]]> ABSTRACT Free films of pullulan-polymethacrylate associations were produced by casting process to develop a novel target-specific material. For characterization, tests of water vapor permeability, swelling index, infrared absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical analysis were performed. The polysaccharide concentration directly influenced vapor permeability and swelling, increasing the values of the latter up to five times when added in a proportion of 20% (per weight). The individual properties of each polymer were maintained, and chemical interactions were not detected. The films were found to be thermally stable and they had unaltered mechanical properties with the addition of the polysaccharide. The microscopic analysis revealed rugosity that was proportional to pullulan and disorganization of the polymer network at pH 6.8. These results suggest that this novel material has potential for enteric drug release because of synergism between pH and enzyme dependence. <![CDATA[Development and validation of a stability indicating HPLC method to determine diltiazem hydrochloride in tablets and compounded capsules]]> ABSTRACT A stability indicating HPLC method to determine diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) in tablets and compounded capsules was developed and validated according to Brazilian and the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The separation was carried out on a Purospher Star® C18 (150 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size, Merck Millipore) analytical column. The mobile phase consisted of a 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid aqueous solution and a 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid methanolic solution (44:56, v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL.min-1 with a run time of 14 minutes. The detection of DTZ and degradation products (DP) was performed at 240 nm, using a diode array detector. The method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, selective, and robust, and was adequate for stability studies and routine quality control analyses of DTZ in tablets and compounded capsules. <![CDATA[Spectrophotometric determination of rosuvastatin in pharmaceutical formulations using quinalizarin]]> ABSTRACT This work presents the development of a methodology based on the formation of a charge transfer complex between quinalizarin and rosuvastatin, allowing for the spectrophotometric determination of rosuvastatin at 579 nm. The factors involved in the sensitivity of the technique were studied (nature and proportion of the solvent, reaction time, pH of aqueous phase and quinalizarin concentration). The proposed spectrophotometric procedures were validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, detection and quantification limits. Calibration curves of the formed color products showed good linear relationships over the concentration range of 6-15 mg L-1. The proposed method has been successfully applied, which can be confirmed by interference test (comparison between the standard curves and addition of analyte), method precision (RSD 2.3% to 6 mg L-1), and by accuracy (statistically equivalent results between the proposed method and a chromatographic method of reference). <![CDATA[Anti-inflammatory and healing action of oral gel containing borneol monoterpene in chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rats ( <em>Rattus norvegicus</em> )]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gels containing the monoterpene borneol in induced oral mucositis using an animal model. Gels were prepared with borneol at 1.2% and 2.4% (w/w). Oral mucositis was induced by administration of three doses of 5-fluorouracil (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and injury with acetic acid (50%, v/v) soaked in filter paper applied to right cheek mucosa for 60s. Four subgroups comprising 12 animals each were formed. Six animals from each group were sacrificed at days seven and fourteen after oral mucositis induction. Mucous samples were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s Trichrome. The semiquantitative evaluation involved observation of inflammatory parameters. ImageJ® software was used in the quantitative evaluation. For statistical analyses, Two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-test (p &lt;0.05), were employed. Borneol 2.4% gel proved effective in the treatment of oral mucositis with statistically significant differences between groups for angiogenesis control, inflammatory cell count reduction and percentage neoformed collagen increase. The confirmation of anti-inflammatory and healing action of borneol in oral mucositis in rats renders it a good marker for predicting this activity for plant extracts rich in this substance. <![CDATA[Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of <em>Tecoma stans</em> against lung cancer cell line (A549)]]> ABSTRACT Human have been constantly using plants and plant products to overcome many diseases. The antioxidant property of the plant sources is studied to obtain an efficacious drug against cancer. The objectives of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the Tecoma stans extracts against lung cancer cell line in comparison with vincristine drug. The antioxidant activity was studied using the standard DPPH assay and the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay. DPPH assay results show that methanolic extract of T. stans in higher concentration show better antioxidant potential than the standard L-ascorbic acid. They exhibited strong antioxidant potential at 20 µg/mL concentration. The absorbance at 517 nm showed that in the range of 0.201-0.0203 compared to that of absorbance of ascorbic acid at 0.023.Cytotoxic activity was studied using MTT assay which showed that the increase in concentration of extract increases the cell death. At 100µg/mL concentration there is an increased cytotoxic activity, i.e., 99% of cell inhibition. The results of antioxidant and anticancerous activity may be positively correlated. <![CDATA[In silico pharmacodynamics, toxicity profile and biological activities of the Saharan medicinal plant <em>Limoniastrum feei</em>]]> ABSTRACT In-silico study was performed to find the pharmacodynamics, toxicity profiles and biological activities of three phytochemicals isolated from Limoniastrum feei (Plumbagenaceae). Online pharmacokinetic tools were used to estimate the potential of Quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin) and quercitin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside as specific drugs. Then the prediction of potential targets of these compounds were investigated using PharmMapper. Auto-Dock 4.0 software was used to investigate the different interactions of these compounds with the targets predicted earlier. The permeability of quercetin was found within the range stated by Lipinski ׳s rule of five. Hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (HPGDS), farnesyl diphosphate synthetase (FPPS) and the deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) were potential targets for quercetin, astragalin and quercetin 7, respectively. Quercetin showed antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activity, while astragalin and quercetin 7 were predicted to have anticancer activities. The activity of Astragalin appeared to be mediated by FPPS inhibition. The inhibition of DCK was predicted as the anticancer mechanisms of quercetin 7. The compounds showed interesting interactions and satisfactory binding energies when docked into their targets. These compounds are proposed to have activities against a variety of human aliments such as allergy, tumors, muscular dystrophy, and diabetic cataracts. <![CDATA[HPLC method development and validation for the estimation of axitinibe in rabbit plasma]]> ABSTRACT A rapid, sensitive, and accurate high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of axitinibe (AN) in rabbit plasma is developed using crizotinibe as an internal standard (IS). Axitinibe is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of advanced kidney cancer, which works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters 2695, Kromosil (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using a mobile phase containing buffer (pH 4.6) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:35 v/v with a flow rate of1 mL/min. The analyte and internal standard were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile. The elution was detected by photo diode array detector at 320 nm.The total chromatographic runtime is 10.0 min with a retention time for axitinibe and IS of 5.685, and 3.606 min, respectively. The method was validated over a dynamic linear range of 0.002-0.2µg/mL for axitinibe with a correlation coefficient of r2 0.999. <![CDATA[Spray dried aqueous extract of <em>Orthosiphon aristatus</em> Blume (Java tea)]]> ABSTRACT Orthosiphon aristatus (Lamiaceae) is an herb medicinal found mainly in China, Indian and South East Asia. The purpose of this work was to develop a technological process for obtaining dry extract of Orthosiphon aristatus by spray dry. A process for the obtaining of dry extract from aqueous extract of Orthosiphon aristatus was studied. Response Surface Methodology experimental design was applied to evaluate the effects of inlet and outlet air temperature on drying yield (%). Mixture experimental design was applied to evaluate the drying adjuvant - total solids relation. Maltodextrin was evaluated as drying adjuvant. The best results were obtained when applying an inlet temperature of 120 °C and outlet temperature of 80 °C and a drying adjuvant - total solids relation (w/w) of 60:40. Under these conditions it was demonstrated that the process is reproducible scale studied. <![CDATA[Organic cocoa extract -loaded surfactant-based systems intended to skin bioadhesion]]> ABSTRACT This study was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the physical-chemical stability, in vitro antioxidant activity and in vitro safety profile of liquid crystalline systems (LCS) and microemulsions (MEs) with and without organic cocoa (OC) extract. LCS stabilized by surfactant polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether, containing water and oleic acid were studied. LCS and MEs were characterized using polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, rheology and in vitro bioadhesion, and were evaluated for a period of 30 days by visual aspects, centrifuge test, pH value and relative density. PLM and SAXS assays showed the presence of domains of MEs, cubic and hexagonal mesophasephases, varying the proportions of the components of the formulations; where in the addition of the extract did not change rheological behavior of the formulations. All of the formulations were stable in the period analyzed and presented higher bioadhesive strength. In vitro antioxidant activity suggests that LCS and MEs presented a high capacity to maintain the antioxidant activity of OC extract. The results showed that the incorporation of OC in LCS improved the safety profile, according to cytotoxicity assays of systems may be a promising platform to OC extract for topical application for the potential treatment of skin disorders. <![CDATA[Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> strains isolated from a Brazilian cheese processing plant]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5%) on adherent cells of three strains of Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 4b and 1/2b that had been previously isolated from the environment of a Brazilian cheese plant. The assays were conducted using polystyrene microplates and stainless steel coupons and the adhered cells were treated with PAA for 60, 120 and 180 s. On stainless steel, biofilms were partially inactivated by PAA after 60 s and almost 100% of the cells were damaged within 180 s using epifluorescence microscopy with LIVE/DEAD® staining. On polystyrene microplates, PAA decreased (P&lt;0.05) biofilm biomass produced by the three L. monocytogenes isolates at 60 s, when compared with controls (no PAA treatment). However, PAA did not completely eliminate L. monocytogenes cells on polystyrene microplates (decreasing 1.8-2.5 log cycles after treatment with PAA for 180 s). The correct concentration and contact time of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces, although further studies are needed for defining efficient PAA treatments to remove adherent cells of this pathogen on plastic polymers. <![CDATA[Negative effects of bisphenol A on testicular functions in albino rats and their abolitions with <em>Tribulus terristeris</em> L.]]> ABSTRACT This study was conducted to find out the ameliorative properties of Tribulus terristeris L (TT) on BPA induced spermatotoxicity in male albino rats. Mature male albino rats were divided into five groups, Group A was taken as control for comparison group, whereas the other four groups namely B(vehicle control), C (toxic), D (preventive control) and Group E (amelioration group) received distilled water, olive oil, BPA, TT, and (TT + BPA) respectively. Macroscopic results revealed decreased body weight of rats, weight of testes, and the relative tissue weight index (RTWI) in BPA induced group. Hormonal (testosterone) assay results revealed the decreased values of BPA treated group. Microscopic examination of testis of BPA treated rats showed reduction in leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen’s scoring. Histological examination showed discontinuity and irregularity of basement membrane and sloughing of the germinal cell linage. Group E showed the body weights of rats, weight of testes, RTWI, and increased, while reduced level of testosterone, reduced number of Leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen’s scoring were restored near to normal. These results demonstrate that TT might be beneficial in combating the spermatotoxicity, induced by BPA. <![CDATA[Cholesterol improves the transfection efficiency of polyallylamine as a non-viral gene delivery vector]]> ABSTRACT Cationic polymers such as polyallylamine (PAA) having primary amino groups are poor transfection agents and possess a high cytotoxicity index when used without any chemical modification. In this study, PAA was modified with cholesterol in order to improve transfection efficiency and to reduce cytotoxicity. PAA polymers with molecular weights of 15 and 65 kDa were selected and grafted with cholesterol at percentages of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 50. After purification, the efficacy of the synthetic vectors was evaluated in terms of DNA condensation using the ethidium bromide test, buffering capacity, particle size, zeta potential, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity assay in Neuro2A cell lines. According to the ethidium bromide test, these vectors can condense DNA at moderate and high carrier to plasmid (C/P) ratios. The buffering capacity of the prepared vector in both molecular weights was less than unmodified PAA. Particle size measurements demonstrated that modified PAAs were able to form nanoparticles ranging in size from 125 to 530 nm. The vectors based on PAA 15 kDa demonstrated a better transfection efficiency than the vectors made of PAA 65 kDa. Cytotoxicity studies showed that toxicity of all vectors was less than PAA. Some cholesterol modified polymers composed of PAA (15 kDa) were suitable vectors for gene delivery with low cytotoxicity. <![CDATA[Measurement uncertainty of dissolution test of acetaminophen immediate release tablets using Monte Carlo simulations]]> ABSTRACT Analytical results are widely used to assess batch-by-batch conformity, pharmaceutical equivalence, as well as in the development of drug products. Despite this, few papers describing the measurement uncertainty estimation associated with these results were found in the literature. Here, we described a simple procedure used for estimating measurement uncertainty associated with the dissolution test of acetaminophen tablets. A fractionate factorial design was used to define a mathematical model that explains the amount of acetaminophen dissolved (%) as a function of time of dissolution (from 20 to 40 minutes), volume of dissolution media (from 800 to 1000 mL), pH of dissolution media (from 2.0 to 6.8), and rotation speed (from 40 to 60 rpm). Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimated measurement uncertainty for dissolution test of acetaminophen tablets (95.2 ± 1.0%), with a 95% confidence level. Rotation speed was the most important source of uncertainty, contributing about 96.2% of overall uncertainty. Finally, it is important to note that the uncertainty calculated in this paper reflects the expected uncertainty to the dissolution test, and does not consider variations in the content of acetaminophen. <![CDATA[Aggravation of cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity in mice by aqueous extract of <em>Aegle marmelos</em> (L.)]]> ABSTRACT Aegle marmelos (L.) (Rutaceae) commonly known as bael is an important medicinal fruit tree. The present study focused on the effects of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AEAM) on the testis and sperm characteristics induced by cyclophosphamide (CPA) in mice. Thirty six adult Parke’s strain mice were divided into six groups: group I given only distilled water (control); group II administered with AEAM alone once in a week for five weeks; group III administered with CPA (200 mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally) once in a week for five weeks and group IV-VI CPA along with AEAM (400, 500 and 600 mg/kg b.w., orally). CPA was found to reduce gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm counts, motility, viability, antioxidant activities and induced histopathological changes of testis. In the group administered AEAM with CPA an exacerbation of sperm count, motility and viability of the cauda epididymis, GSI, antioxidant activities and architecture of testis was observed. The results suggest that the administration of AEAM may aggravate CPA-induced reproductive toxicity. It may be helpful in preparation of natural male contraceptives. <![CDATA[The <em>in vivo</em> effect of L-arginine on skin elasticity in mice]]> ABSTRACT The human skin aging process is a complex mechanism that can be induced both by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Observations include a decrease in the biosynthetic and proliferative capacity of cells, increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases, reduction in collagen type I expression, and the progressive disappearance of elastic tissue in the papillary dermis. L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide synthesis, is involved in angiogenesis and cell proliferation, as well as an indirect precursor of collagen synthesis via the proline pathway. The aim of this study was to examine the tensile strength, histology, and immunohistochemistry of female and male mice skin receiving different concentrations of topically applied L-arginine, in order to evaluate the possibility of using L-arginine as an active cosmetic ingredient in antiaging products. The results suggest that the application of L-arginine improves the mechanical resistance of skin from older female mice (20 weeks old) and promotes the formation of a larger amount of collagen and elastic fibers in the skin when applied at a concentration of 15%. <![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness of insulin analogs from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system]]> ABSTRACT Human insulin is provided by the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS) for the treatment of diabetes, however, legal proceedings to acquire insulin analogs have burdened the BPHS health system. The aim of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare insulin analogs and human insulins. This is a pharmacoeconomic study of cost-effectiveness. The direct medical cost related to insulin extracted from the Ministry of Health drug price list was considered. The clinical results, i.e. reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), were extracted by meta-analysis. Different scenarios were structured to measure the uncertainties regarding the costs and reduction in HbA1c. Decision tree was developed for sensitivity of Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER). A total of fifteen scenarios were structured. Given the best-case scenario for the insulin analogs, the insulins aspart, lispro, glargine and detemir showed an ICER of R$ 1,768.59; R$ 3,308.54; R$ 11,718.75 and R$ 2,685.22, respectively. In all scenarios in which the minimum effectiveness was proposed, lispro, glargine and detemir were dominant strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the aspart had R$ 3,066.98 [95 % CI: 2339.22; 4418.53] and detemir had R$ 6,163.97 [95% CI: 3919.29; 11401.57] for incremental costs. We concluded there was evidence that the insulin aspart is the most cost-effective.