Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Geology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=2317-488920180004&lang=en vol. 48 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Gold deposits in poly-deformed metasedimentary rocks: a case study of the C1-Santaluz gold deposit, Itapicuru Greenstone Belt, Northeast of Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400651&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: The C1-Santaluz gold deposit is located in the Itapicuru greenstone belt in Bahia State, Brazil. Metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks dominate at the base and top, respectively. The ore minerals related to the auriferous mineralization are pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and stibnite. Arsenopyrite is related to, and associated with the presence of gold in quartz veins, a feature which is detected by scanning electron microscope analyses. The deposit is structurally complex, with tree deformational phases being recognized: D n-1 , D n , and D n+1 . Phases D n-1 and D n have a direct relation to the mineralization, and mineralized quartz veins are parallel to the S n foliation (S 0 //S n-1 //S n ). The intersection between the S 0 //S n-1 bedding and the S n foliation generates an intersection lineation parallel to the D n fold axis, plunging to the NW, which has favored an increase in the volume of mineralized bodies. <![CDATA[The 9 Mile Deposit of the Barama-Mazaruni Greenstone Belt of the Guiana Shield: geochemistry, geochronology and regional significance]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400671&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: The granitoid and greenstone-hosted 9 Mile Deposit, located in the Paleoproterozoic Barama-Mazaruni Greenstone Belt of the Guiana Shield, is one of a series of gold deposits within the NW-SE trending Makapa-Kuribrong Shear Zone (MKSZ), which extends from Venezuela, through Guyana, and French Guiana. The 9 Mile Deposit is underlain by the upper section of a shallowly-dipping meta-rhyolite rock, which was intruded by a host granodiorite and subsequently intruded by of a series of mafic dykes. Auriferous quartz veins are associated with the NE-SW thrust which was crosscut by a steep E-W shear zone, at least 12 km in length. Field relationships and lithogeochemical data suggest that the granodiorite was crustally derived and emplaced in a volcanic arc or syn- to late-collisional setting. U-Pb (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons indicates the granodiorite intruded at approximately 2.15, Ga suggesting it is a local representative of a regional suite of syn- to late-tectonic granitoid plutons emplaced during the main phase of Trans-Amazonian Orogeny. <![CDATA[Temperature and pressure in the environment of epithermal alteration: a case study at Ibaré Lineament, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400685&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: The Ibaré Lineament is a shear zone that sections the Western portion of Sul-riograndense Shield, affecting the orthogneissic rocks of Santa Maria Chico Granulitic Complex, acting as a conduct for hydrothermal fluids. The studied hydrothermal mineralogy reflects a propylitic alteration paragenesis that is composed of Fe-clinochlore, epidote, albite, calcite and quartz, typical low-pressure paragenesis (&lt; 2,000 bar). This mineral association reflects an equilibrium in a neutral to slightly alkaline pH. Using the new approach for chlorite geothermometry, an average formation temperature of 274°C was obtained, compatible with the stability of polytype IIb chlorite and with the irregular textures of twinning in calcites. The fluid inclusions in quartz establish a low-salinity system (2.45 wt.% NaCl eq.) and an average temperature of 175°C. The obtained temperatures are interpreted as a continuum cooling model with meteoric fluids entrance. The system pressure is evaluated from isochores, reaching an average value of 1,560 bar. This is the first temperature and pressure estimate to the Ibaré Shear Zone, which enabled the establishment of a shallow hydrothermal system (epithermal) with fluid interaction from magmatic and meteoric sources, confirmed by the behavior of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, which indicated an the origin from mixed sources. <![CDATA[Favorability potential for IOCG type deposits in the Riacho do Pontal Belt: new insights for identifying prospects of IOCG-type deposits in NE Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400703&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: Archean iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits have been systematically described in the world class Carajás IOCG district, Amazonian region of Brazil. More recently, several Neoproterozoic (ca 1.13 to 0.96 Ga) IOCG deposits have been identified in the Riacho do Pontal mobile belt situated in the Borborema Province on the northern border of the São Francisco Craton. In these Neoproterozoic deposits, several copper occurrences have been mapped along shear zones. The primary hydrothermal mineral associations resulted in sodic, calcic-potassic and potassic-ferric alteration. The copper grades of the main prospects range between 0.5 and 0.8 wt% with an average of ~0.7 wt%. This study uses a fuzzy logic approach to create regional to district scale predictive exploration models. Specifically, multi-parameter geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and airborne geophysical data incorporated into regional and local models predict known copper mineralization and, importantly, highlight prospective areas for new IOCG targets in the Borborema Province. At district scale, multiple higher resolution geological, soil geochemical, and airborne geophysical data that cover the Riacho do Pontal Belt, were analyzed. A drilling exploration program implemented on target RIA4 validated these model results. Drill hole RIA4-DH0001 crosscuts a mineralized zone with 32 m of 1.15 wt% copper. <![CDATA[Formation of monazite-(Ce, La) by fluid-apatite interaction: the Floresta Azul Alkaline Complex, Bahia, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400721&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: Monazite is a common accessory mineral in the Floresta Azul Alkaline Complex, occurring in three different rock types, which form this batholith: nepheline syenite, granite and fenite. Two compositional types of monazite can be found: monazite-(Ce) and monazite-(La), the latter being found only in syenites. Monazite occurs in close association with apatite as anhedral crystals ranging in size from 0.1-100 µm, and textures indicate different genetic processes. In nepheline syenite, monazite is closely related to ancylite and apatite, as a late crystallizing phase. Monazite occurs in granites as pore fillings in apatite and was formed by the remobilization of rare earth elements (REE) from apatite by late CO 2 - rich fluids. In fenite, monazite appears as acicular crystals, parallel to apatite’s crystallographic c-axis formed by exsolution from apatite by metamorphism. The data show that the monazite genesis was closely related to the activity of fluids associated either with the final stages of crystallization of nepheline syenite and granite or with fenitization of country rock. <![CDATA[First Lu-Hf, δ<sup>18</sup>O and trace elements in zircon signatures from the Statherian Espinhaço anorogenic province (Eastern Brazil): geotectonic implications of a silicic large igneous province]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400735&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: The Espinhaço rift system encompasses taphrogenetic events from the Statherian to Tonian in the São Francisco-Congo (SFC) paleocontinent. The magmatism is represented mainly by metamorphosed anorogenic granites and rhyolites with subordinate amphibolites. Zircon U-Pb ­(LA-ICPMS and SHRIMP) ages from felsic (1748 ± 3 Ma and 1740 ± 8 Ma) and mafic (1725 ± 4 Ma) rock samples, coupled with previous studies suggest that the Espinhaço igneous province erupted from ca. 1.79 Ga to ca. 1.70 Ga. The felsic rocks show characteristics of A-type magmas. The negative εHf(t) data for meta-rhyolite zircons (-12.32 to -17.58), the moderate δ 18 O values (7.02 to 7.98) and the REE patterns suggest crustal melting related to an extensional environment. The mafic rock shows negative values of εHf(t) in zircons (-4.05 to -8.25) and moderate δ 18 O values (5.56 to 7.87). The results disclose a basaltic magmatism in continental intraplate setting whose parental magma could have been derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle with contamination of crustal material. These data coupled with coeval Espinhaço magmatism and mafic dyke swarms found to the south of the Espinhaço rift system reinforce the evidence of a long-lived Statherian silicic large igneous province (SLIP) on the SFC paleocontinental block. <![CDATA[SHRIMP U-Pb Geochronology of the Socorro Batholith and implications for the Neoproterozoic evolution in SE Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400761&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: The Socorro Batholith is one of the most expressive granite manifestations associated with the Neoproterozoic evolution in SE Brazil, occupying large areas (~1,200 km 2 ) in the southern portion of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe. A U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating program was developed to determine the ages of the main components of this batholith, identified in previous detailed mapping projects. High-K calc-alkaline (HKCA) porphyritic biotite-hornblende granites with relatively low (60-67 wt%) SiO 2 are the most voluminous component of this and other large “syn-tectonic” batholiths in the SGN (Água Limpa and Pinhal-Ipuiúna) and neighboring domains located south of it in the Apiaí and São Roque Domains of the Ribeira Fold Belt. Two samples collected in widely separated localities at the northern and southern part of the Socorro batholith yield similar ages of magmatic crystallization, respectively 610.1 ± 7.0 and 608.3 ± 6.6 Ma. A more fractioned (&gt; 72 wt% SiO 2 ) granite reported in the literature as related to a younger event (“Socorro II magmatism”, as opposed to the previous “Socorro I” HKCA granites) yield a precise age that is clearly older (624.4 ± 3.6 Ma), and contemporary to anatectic granites and migmatites that were produced during a prolonged period of high-grade metamorphism (635-605 Ma) that affected the SGN. Our data thus indicates that at least part of the HKCA magmatism that constitutes the Socorro batholith post-dates the high-P metamorphism associated to continental collision, and may have been a source of heat and volatiles to the high-T metamorphism responsible for partial melting of the upper portions of the crustal section represented by the SGN. Two charnockitic rocks that show transitional contacts with granites of the Socorro batholith were also dated. The Socorro Charnockite is aged 641.6 ± 4.1 Ma, which overlaps those of regional orthogneisses (in part also of charnockitic character) considered as associated with a pre-collisional tectonics (subduction-related?). However, it is reported to transition to granites that are very similar to the HKCA granites of the Socorro batholith, which are yet undated. The Atibaia Charnockite has distinct geochemical affinity (lower mg# and Sr content; higher Zr), a younger age (633.3 ± 6.2 Ma), and may signal a different tectonic setting at the end of the period of plate consumption as yet poorly characterized. <![CDATA[The Ediacaran Salinas turbidites, Araçuaí Orogen, MG: tectonics and sedimentation interplay in a syn-orogenic basin]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400783&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: The Ediacaran Salinas Formation exposed in the northern Araçuaí orogen is made up of syn-orogenic turbidites deposited between 580 and 560 Ma. Aiming to investigate how tectonic and sedimentary processes interact during the development of a flysch basin, we carried out a detailed field-based sedimentological and stratigraphic investigation of the Salinas Formation in its type-area located in northern Minas Gerais. Lithofacies and lithofacies assemblages recognized in the unit represent proximal to distal turbidite fan deposits, all of them affected by soft-sediment deformation. Based on the amount of lateral displacement and sediment volume involved, we distinguished four classes of soft-sediment deformation structures. The vertical facies changes of the whole Salinas Formation characterizes a coarsening-upward 1st-order sequence that record a general southwest-south progradation of a turbidite fan system fed from the north. The overall organization of the 25-60 m-thick fining-up cycles are especially elucidative of the interplay between tectonic and sedimentary processes during the accumulation of the Salinas turbidites. They initiate with thick sandstone beds deposited on top of intensively deformed strata, continuing with various sandy turbidite pulses, and ending with fine-grained sediments. In our view, they record the retraction and reorganization of the basin fill system after a sequence of seismic events. <![CDATA[Paleoenvironments of a regressive Devonian section from Paraná Basin (Mato Grosso do Sul state) by integration of ichnologic, taphonomic and sedimentologic analyses]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400805&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: Studies that integrate ichnologic, taphonomic and sedimentologic data result in more accurate paleoenvironmental inferences than isolated approaches. Most of paleontological studies regarding Devonian from Paraná Basin were conducted in the southern part of the basin (Paraná state), precluding taphonomic or ichnologic studies to the northern part, and even its macrofossils content is understudied. This study analyzes paleoecologic and depositional conditions represented by trace fossils, macrofossils and sedimentary facies in a regressive Devonian section from Paraná Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Seven ichnofabrics (Macaronichnus, Psammichnites, Arenicolites-Skolithos, Cylindrichnus-Skolithos, Zoophycos, Rhizocorallium-Palaeophycus, and Chondrites ichnofabrics) and three taphofacies (T1: parautochthonous to allochthonous preservation; T2: Autochthonous preservation; and T3: time-averaged autochthonous to allochthonous association) were diagnosed. The studied sections are positioned in a highstand systems tract (HST) exhibiting dominance of sandy facies, and four sub-environments were defined: foreshore; shoreface; storm-dominated shoreface to transitional offshore; and offshore. The dominance of foreshore to shoreface settings in a HST corroborates a shallower context in relation to the southern part. However, similarities in the facies and ichnofacies stacking, as well in the macrofossil content suggest that the hypothetical division between two sub-basins (Apucarana and Alto Garças Sub-basins) was not complete until early Emsian. <![CDATA[The São Jerônimo da Serra Site, Rio do Rasto Formation (Middle/Upper Permian), Paraná Basin, Brazil: faciological and taphonomic context]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400821&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: In this contribution, we present an analysis of the main faciological features of the São Jerônimo da Serra Site, related to the Morro Pelado Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Middle/Upper Permian), from Paraná State, Brazil, integrated to its taphonomic context. The outcrop, rich in vertebrates and bivalves remains, presents a succession of red siltstones bedded with fine to medium sandstones in which three architectural elements were observed: SF (sheetflood deposits), FF (fine of flood plain) and CS (crevasse). These data, allied to the taphonomic signatures of fossils assigned to eight levels, allowed the identification of three taphofacies. The taphofacies I is characterized by preserved bones in floodplain facies, with different articulation grades and absence of any sign of transport. The taphofacies II is composed by small isolated or fragmented bones and fish scales deposited in terminal splay facies. The taphofacies III is characterized by sandy layers with bivalve shells and fish scales, preserved in crevasse-splay deposits. The obtained data shows that the studied sedimentary succession was generated on a dry trend environment, with sporadic water supply, which conditioned the fossil preservation. <![CDATA[Structural analysis of clastic dikes using Structure from Motion - Multi-View Stereo: a case-study in the Paraná Basin, southeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400839&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: This work presents the development of a three-dimensional (3D) model of an outcrop of the Corumbataí Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin, Brazil) using Structure from Motion - Multi-View Stereo (SfM-MVS) technique in order to provide a structural analysis of clastic dikes cutting through siltstone layers. While traditional photogrammetry requires the user to input a series of parameters related to the camera orientation and its characteristics (such as focal distance), in SfM-MVS the scene geometry, camera position and orientations are automatically determined by a bundle adjustment, an iterative procedure based on a set of overlapping images. It is considered a low-cost technique in terms of hardware and software, also being able to provide point density and accuracy on par to the ones obtained withTerrestrial Laser Scanning. The results acquired on this research have good agreement with previous works, yielding a NNW main orientation for the dikes measured in the field and on the 3D model. The development of this work showed that SfM-MVS use and practice on geosciences still needs more studies on the optimization of the involved parameters (such as camera orientation, image overlap and angle of illumination), which, when accomplished, will result in less processing time and more accurate models. <![CDATA[Ionic content in an ice core from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: 1882-2008 A.D.]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400853&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: The study of atmospheric aerosols through polar ice cores is one of the most common and robust tools for the investigation of past changes in the circulation and chemistry of the atmosphere. Only a few subannual resolution records are available for the development of paleochemical and environmental interpretations. Here, we report the ionic content record for the period of 1882-2008 A.D. in an ice core recovered at the ice divide of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The ion concentrations found in the core were determined by ion chromatography on more than 2,000 samples and the basic statistics were calculated for major inorganic and organic ions. The dating of the core layers was based on the seasonality of SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and Na + , checked by the identification of the Krakatau (1883), Agung (1963) and Pinatubo/Hudson (1991) volcanic eruption signals. Significant aerosol input events were identified and grouped considering the ions present, their provenance and the season. The ionic balance, together with the decomposition of some origin indicators, showed that 36% of the ionic charge is derived from sea salt aerosols, 13% from mineral dust, and 17% from biogenic marine activity, while 34% are mainly products of chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. <![CDATA[Natural background levels and seasonal influence on groundwater chemistry of the Upper São Francisco karst region, MG, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892018000400867&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT: Karst aquifers are large water reservoirs that supply approximately 25% of the world population. They are also extremely sensitive to contamination, demanding knowledge on groundwater quality regarding base level conditions for the main cations and anions. Knowing the Natural Background Level (NBL) values of these waters becomes an indispensable measure to understand aquifers and hydrochemical anomalies, either from anthropogenic or geogenic origin. This paper aimed to provide a hydrochemical characterization and to propose NBL 90% values for the little-studied groundwater of the São Miguel River watershed, Upper São Francisco River, MG, Brazil. NBL 90% values were estimated using statistical analyses followed by an analysis of seasonal influence on observed concentrations. The water was classified as calcium bicarbonate, with the highest NBL 90% values occurring during the rainy season for Ca 2+ , K + , HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , and As 3+ . On the other hand, Mg 2+ , Na + , PO 4 3- , and Zn 2+ presented reduction in concentration during this season. Nitrate, phosphate and chloride anomalies (values above NBL 90%) are directly related to human action. Thus, monitoring and proposing NBL 90% values were an essential tool to help in understanding the hydrochemical behavior of waters in this watershed.