Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Geology]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=2317-488920190002&lang=pt vol. 49 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Geochemistry, metamorphic evolution and tectonic significance of metabasites from Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200300&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract This paper proposes the generation and closure of a proto-ocean and formation of an island arc in the Neoproterozoic Passo Feio Metamorphic Complex (PFMC), Caçapava do Sul region, southern Brazil. The PFMC, São Gabriel Terrane, consists of a Neoproterozoic supracrustal metavolcano-sedimentary sequence intruded by the Caçapava Granite. The study uses petrography, whole-rock geochemistry and mineral chemistry to identify the geochemical affinity and tectonic environment of the amphibolites contained in PFMC, the basalts and pillow lavas of Arroio Mudador Formation and dikes intruded in nearby volcanogenic rocks of Hilário Formation. The applied methods allow the metamorphic facies classification of ­prehnite-pumpellyite for the basalts and pillow lavas, greenschist for the dikes and lower amphibolite for the amphibolites. The discriminant diagrams indicate from tholeiitic to alkaline affinities for the Hilário Formation dikes. The basalts, pillow lavas and amphibolites have basaltic to basaltic-andesite composition and predominant tholeiitic affinity, interpreted as derived of the same protolith. The geotectonic diagrams mostly indicate volcanic arc basalts. The proposed evolution model starts with a proto-ocean opening through the Bossoroca Arc rifting around 760Ma, where an island arc is formed (PFMC rocks), precipitation of carbonates and marls, subsequent closure, two metamorphism events and the Caçapava Granite intrusion around 562 Ma. <![CDATA[Interpretation software applied to the evaluation of shallow seismic data processing routines in fluvial deposits]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200301&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract High-resolution seismic surveys have been successfully applied in the study of active sedimentary environments in shallow submerged settings, particularly improving the interpretation of sedimentary facies and architectural elements that characterize fluvial rock records. Nevertheless, specific data processing workflows to emphasize sedimentary structures have not been proposed or tested, so that interpretation currently relies on the subjective opinion of individual interpreters, which might lead to biased conclusions. Aiming at the construction of a less biased data processing workflow, we developed a software that analyzes seismic data and performs standardized interpretation by linking individual seismic traces to generate interpreted reflector lines. A dataset acquired with boomer continuous seismic profiler in the sedimentary bed of the Amazonas river in Brazil was processed with a typical sequence of filter and gain (using Seismic UNIX software), as well as a routine of trace interpolation written in GNU Octave. The application of the Standardized Interpreter at different stages of processing enabled the comparison of the resulting interpretation scenarios in terms of the representation of geometries related to internal sedimentary structures, thus leading to the proposition of a workflow adapted to the specific needs of sedimentary structure interpretation from seismic data. <![CDATA[Linking gemology and spectral geology: a case study of elbaites from Seridó Pegmatite Province, Northeastern Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200302&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract reflectance spectroscopy is a fast tool for mineral identification and classification. We conducted spectral characterization of elbaite samples (n = 30) from Seridó Pegmatite Province, Borborema Province, NE Brazil, using a FieldSpec portable instrument and geochemical data from electron probe microanalysis. Visual interpretation of reflectance spectra reveals the absorption features in the visible to near infrared (350-1,200 nm) range related to the electronic transition processes of iron (e.g., ~720, ~1,180 nm), copper (e.g., ~694, ~922 nm) and manganese (e.g., ~400, ~520 nm) ions. In general, electron probe microanalysis data show correlation with the absorption features related to chromophore elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mn), but the complex crystal structure of the tourmalines also accounts for the generation of absorption features. Vibrational processes in the short-wave infrared (1,200-2,500 nm) spectral range appear associated with Mn-OH, OH, Al-OH, H2O and B-OH bonds. A statistical approach, using principal component analysis, was chosen for distinguishing tourmalines of different composition. We discriminated tourmalines characterized by green, blue, blue-green, red/purple colors, as well as the colorless ones. This included the Paraíba tourmaline, a high value variety of elbaite that is the focus of exploration carried out in Seridó Pegmatite Province. <![CDATA[Experimental bedforms by saline density currents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200303&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Bedforms are sedimentary features that can be generated on the seafloor by the interaction between density currents and mobile beds. Developing knowledge about the hydraulic and sedimentary processes involved during these events is in the interest of research groups and oil companies. Because of the magnitude of the density currents in its natural environment and the challenge in collecting data, studies in laboratory are of great value. We present results of 29 experiments focusing in the bedform development generated by saline currents, testing two different sediment types and three grain sizes: melamine (245 µm-plastic) and sands (206 and 485 µm). We analyzed the current velocity and fractional density profiles as well as pictures taken during and after each run. Results have showed classical velocity and concentration profiles, for 8 subcritical and 21 supercritical currents, with densimetric Froude numbers (Frd) between 0.5 and 2.2. Some correlations were identified, such as the decrease of the velocity peak height and increase in the mean velocity (with consequent reduction of the current thickness), due to an increase of the concentration and/or flume slope. The occurrence of bedforms was more likely for high discharge and concentration rates of current density, which directly influence the Frd. Bedforms were classified according to the shear stresses values applied by the current to the bed, resulting in the generation of lower plane bed, ripples and dunes. Dunes and ripples were observed in supercritical flow conditions, which is a hydraulic scenario of bedforms generation not predicted by fluvial models. Thus, this study demonstrated the existence of differences in generation and, consequently, the classification approach for density current bedforms, compared to those generated by river flows. To this fact is attributed the hydrodynamic (velocity and concentration profiles) and sediment transport differences between fluvial flows and density currents. Further studies may be carried out in order to constructing new concepts of bedforms generation by density currents. <![CDATA[The Barreiro suite in the central Ribeira Belt (SE-Brazil): a late Tonian tholeiitic intraplate magmatic event in the distal passive margin of the São Francisco Paleocontinent]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200304&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract New geochemical, U-Pb, Lu-Hf and Sr-Nd data from the Barreiro Suite metabasites in comparison with enclaves within the distal Andrelândia Group and the orthogranulites of the Juiz de Fora Complex are presented. Geochemical data suggest intraplate setting, with high and low-TiO 2 , TDM Nd ages between 1.80 and 1.41 Ga, negative ΕNd t and ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i between 0.714 and 0.747. Results contrast with part of the Juiz de Fora Complex enclaves, with island arc tholeiites- calcalkaline basalts (IAT-CAB) geochemical signatures, TDM Nd ages between 2.58 and 2.16 Ga, positive ΕNd t values and (87Sr/86Sr) i between 0.700 and 0.712. U-Pb data for the Barreiro Suite yielded a crystallization age of 766 ± 13 Ma and a metamorphic overprint of 619 ± 6 Ma. The results indicate three episodes of mafic magmatism in the Occidental terrane of the Ribeira Belt. The two older episodes are related to Rhyacian arc evolution (ca. 2.2 to 2.1 Ga) and to the Statherian (ca. 1.7 Ga) tectonics, and occur only within the Juiz de Fora Complex, while the younger ca. 766 Ma episode constrains the timing of distal passive margin evolution. An important implication is that these late Tonian metabasic rocks could have been a source of detrital zircons for the sedimentation along the distal Andrelândia basin. <![CDATA[Monitoring of Sobradinho landslide (Brasília, Brazil) and a prototype vertical slope by time-lapse interferometry]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200305&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The application of geophysical monitoring technologies may offer an opportunity to understand the dynamic of slopes in response to factors triggering their instability. In this study, Ambient Noise Interferometry was used as a monitoring approach on a man-made reduced-scale vertical slope and on a natural-scale landslide in Sobradinho (Brazil), under the influence of mechanical stress and rainfall, respectively. For both experiments, we adopted similar data acquisition system and processing workflow. After preprocessing of ambient seismic noise, the time-lapse changes were determined in terms of relative velocity changes using the moving window cross spectral technique. For the vertical slope, terrestrial laser scanning was also performed to detect crack or fissure generation. The prototype experiment results showed a decreasing trend of relative velocity changes and reached a minimum value of -0.6% at the end of the experiment. No change was detected on the digital elevation model that was computed from terrestrial laser scanning images, due to the absence of centimeter scale superficial fissures. At natural scale (Sobradinho landslide), no significant variation in relative velocity changes was detected for the rainy and non-rainy days, mainly because of the inadequate change in the degree of saturation, which was found within a relatively short period of data acquisition. <![CDATA[Sedimentary and U-Pb detrital zircons provenance of the Paleoproterozoic Piracicaba and Sabará groups, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern São Francisco craton, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200306&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is an important mineral province located in Southern São Francisco craton, SE Brazil. Its prominent feature is the Gandarela syncline that was formed as part of the regional deformation event in the southernmost part of the craton at ca. 2,000 Ma. The syncline exposes several economically important units of Rio das Velhas and Minas supergroups, widely known for their gold and iron ore mineral deposits. This work focused on the upper Minas Supergroup — Cercadinho Formation and Sabará Group in the Gandarela syncline. We showed detail stratigraphic surveys combined with U-Pb detrital zircon analysis. Data reveal the development of high- to low-density turbidity systems. The first one is related to the deposition of Cercadinho Formation that marks the siliciclastic infilling of the Minas basin. For the Sabará Group, a fine turbidite system of foredeep depocenter is inferred. The detrital zircon analysis indicates that their sediments were derived from Archean, Rhyacian, and Orosirian exhumed terrains, besides granitoids positioned to the south and east of Quadrilátero Ferrífero. We proposed the age of 2,036 ± 25 Ma as the maximum age of deposition of Sabará Group, whose sedimentation occurs in the first stages of Minas accretionary orogeny. <![CDATA[Metamorphic modeling and petrochronology of metapelitic rocks from the Luminárias Nappe, southern Brasília belt (SE Brazil)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-48892019000200307&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The Luminárias Nappe was formed in the agglutination of West Gondwana. A high-pressure metamorphic gradient oblique to the geological contacts is recorded in metapelitic rocks from this Nappe. In the northern portion, the metamorphic peak conditions are at high-pressure lower-amphibolite facies at 580 ± 4°C and ca. 0.9 GPa (Chl + Ky + St + Ms + Qtz + Rt); in the central portion, they are at high-pressure amphibolite facies at 600 ± 15°C and 1.1 ± 0.3 GPa (St + Bt + Grt + Ms + Qtz + Rt); and in the southern portion, they reach the eclogite facies at 630 ± 13°C and 1.4 ± 0.6 GPa (St + Ky + Grt + Ms + Qtz + Rt). Clockwise metamorphic P-T-t paths are registered in the studied rocks, with temperature and pressure increase followed by a strong decompression with retrograde phases as chloritoid (northern portion), chlorite and ilmenite (central portion) and biotite, chlorite and ilmenite (southern portion). U-Th-PbT monazite ages range from 632 ± 4 Ma (southern portion) to 600 ± 8 Ma (northern portion included crystals in garnet and staurolite). The metamorphic age, the high-pressure conditions calculated in this paper and the clockwise metamorphic path indicate that the tectonic evolution of the Luminárias Nappe rocks is tightly associated with the subduction and collision processes of the southern Brasília belt. The overprint of the younger Ribeira belt is interpreted to be responsible for rock pile tilting, thus producing the oblique metamorphic gradient.