Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Geology]]> vol. 48 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Geochemistry of the Northern Paraná Continental Flood Basalt (PCFB) Province: implications for regional chemostratigraphy]]> ABSTRACT: The Paraná Continental Flood Basalt (PCFB) province is one of the largest igneous provinces on Earth, but little is known about the architecture and geochemical characteristics of the lava flows. In this context, a set of borehole samples arranged in an NEE-SWW profile - more than 600 km long - located in the northern PCFB was used to define its chemostratigraphy. In this region, the outcrops are rare, and the volcanic piles are covered by hundreds of meters of sedimentary rocks from the Bauru Sub-Basin. This study aimed to explore the chemostratigraphic column from northern PCFB to improve the understanding of its internal architecture and to characterize the flood basalt sequences by using the petrography and elemental geochemistry of surface and borehole samples. The results showed the presence of the main four magma types, which were essentially distinguished by their P 2 O 5 , TiO 2 and Sr concentrations, as well as Zr/Y ratios, with excellent chemostratigraphy relations. <![CDATA[Morphology and stratigraphy of Serra Geral silicic lava flows in the northern segment of the Torres Trough, Paraná Igneous Province]]> ABSTRACT: The impetus for this research was the enigma regarding the origin of the extensive silicic volcanic units in the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province. Are they rheoignimbrites, lava flows, or a combination of both? The São Joaquim silicic eruptive sequence is comprised of Palmas-Type aphyric dacites and is located in the northern segment of Torres Trough, a dissected mountainous region in southern Brazil. These dacite outcrops form plateaus and remnant hills that are scattered above a basaltic andesitic landscape. The original morphology of the silicic volcanic flows was constrained based on the internal architecture, geometry, and cyclicity of the lithofacies, in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical information. The data suggests the presence of ancient large tabular and lobate silicic lava flows (~100 m thick and ~10-40 km extents). No pyroclastic features were found. Eight interdigitating units were mapped. These large aspect ratios are similar to ones for basaltic flows and those of Snake River-type rhyolites, and they suggest high effusion rates and high temperatures as well as the presence of well-insulated cooled crusts. Lavas would have overflowed from long fissure vents that had created an extensive volcanic silicic surface body composed of conjugated and interdigitated flows above the north segment of the Torres Trough region. <![CDATA[Geology, geochemistry and petrology of basalts from Paraná Continental Magmatic Province in the Araguari, Uberlândia, Uberaba and Sacramento regions, Minas Gerais state, Brazil]]> Abstract: This study covers the region between the cities of Sacramento and Araguari/Uberlândia (Minas Gerais State, Brazil), where basalt flows from the Paraná Continental Magmatic Province outcrop. The investigated rocks present tholeiitic signature, with high titanium content, and are classified as Pitanga magma-type. The preserved basalt thickness is between 10 and 200 meters and individual flows do not exceed 15 meters thick. Flows were identified as sheet lobes, smaller and thinner flows units - stacked laterally and vertically forming compound lavas -, or frontal, centimetric lobes. The basalt flows show decimetric to metric intercalations of clastic sedimentary rock, with depositional characteristics that can vary from aeolian to lacustrine, and are important markers on prevailing environmental conditions. The plagioclases are dominantly labradorite and pyroxene is augite, whereas olivine can be hyalosiderite or hortonolite/ferrohortonolite. The behavior of the major, minor and trace elements is compatible with the presence of at least two parental magmas, which were subjected to fractional crystallization mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, ilmenite and magnetite. There is a chemistry distinction between basalts from Sacramento to those from Araguari/Uberlândia region, the former one showing more evolved than the last one. The high (La/Lu)N values are indicative of partial melting of a garnet peridotite, while the Rare Earth Elements (REE) values are indicative of fractional crystallization. <![CDATA[Local geological sections and regional stratigraphy based on physical geology and chemical stratigraphy of the Serra Geral Group from Araraquara to Avaré, SP]]> ABSTRACT: From Araraquara to Avaré, in the Serra Geral Group outcropping area, 22 detailed geological sections were elaborated. The stratigraphic relationships and the chemical analysis allowed the identification of seven [P2O5] basalt classes, all of them pertaining to the Pitanga type, showing a consistent stacking order across the studied region. Thus, each class is considered to correspond to a specific lava flow, allowing a general stratigraphic column to be proposed. Besides the stacking order, the validation of P2O5 as a tool for lava correlation at great distances was also based on the values obtained from samples collected at different positions in a single flow, and on the remarkable [P2O5] contrast between adjacent flows. Minimum lateral extensions range from 75 to 185 km, and thickness from 20 to 80 m. Vertical tectonic displacements, which took place in different periods, were inferred from the altitude of specific flows, and also from the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. They are noticeable in a region bounded by EW drainage lineaments, which contains a large area where Piramboia and Botucatu formations crop out, probably due to the tectonic activity causing this region to be a generalized structural high. <![CDATA[The Mato Perso Conduit System: evidence of silicic magma transport in the southern portion of the Paraná-Etendeka LIP, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT: The Mato Perso Conduit System is described from a ~ 120 km2 area in south Brazil exposing silicic volcanics of the Paraná-Etendeka LIP. A volcanic succession is defined by basaltic flows covered by flat-lying oxidized vitrophyres, banded vitrophyres cutting the lower lavas and grey flat-lying vitrophyres covering all the units. Flow morphologies determined by the recognition of structures, textures, and vesicle distribution were observed. Oxidized vitrophyres display massive flat-lying banded cores and flow tops from vesicular to frothy. Grey flat-lying vitrophyres have sharp contacts in the top of both basalt flows and oxidized vitrophyres, locally exhibit basal breccia and have a flat-lying foliation. Conduits are represented by banded vitrophyres and breccias, which outcrop in a 6 km wide, NW-SE oriented segment downthrown by normal faults towards the Antas River. The interpretation of the units on the geological map scale indicates intrusive contact relations. Recognition of dike-like structures in banded vitrophyres and dykes of oxidized vitrophyre are evidence of felsic magma transport. Based on field observations, we propose the emplacement of subaerial oxidized and grey vitrophyres fed by a fault-related conduit system. Sustained high temperature magmatic systems ensure the silicic lavas have a low viscosity and travel great distances. <![CDATA[Geochemistry of basaltic flows from a basalt ring structure of the Serra Geral formation at Água Vermelha dam, Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil: implications for the magmatic evolution of the Paraná-Etendeka Province]]> ABSTRACT: The Serra Geral Formation belongs to the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province (PEMP) and its geochemical and petrographic characteristics are not homogeneous. Many studies segment this group into six basaltic and two rhyolitic magma-types. It is believed that its extrusion occurred through crustal fissures in the Cretaceous, but some authors described the presence of conduits in the shape of basaltic ring structures (BRS) in the Água Vermelha region in the North of the province. The BRS rocks, based on textures and structures, were divided into four groups-central flow, basal flow, main ring dyke and lava flow-with a very similar petrography, composed of plagioclase (labradorite-bytownite), clinopyroxene (augite) and oxide (titanomagnetite) with intergranular texture. The whole-rock analyses of the basal and lava flows allow classifying them as tholeiitic basalts of the Paranapanema magma-type. Geochemical data interpretation suggests an enriched magma source, with low degree of partial melting, high depth of melt generation and without significant crustal contamination. The BRS experienced fractional crystallization on shallow magma chamber, influenced by successive new injections from different parental magmas which would be responsible for the pulses of effusion and explosion. Thus, the singularities of the BRS of Água Vermelha are important to comprehend the evolution of the PEMP. <![CDATA[2D magnetometric modeling of a basic-intermediate intrusion geometry: geophysical and geological approaches applied to the Limeira intrusion, Paraná Magmatic Province (SP, Brazil)]]> ABSTRACT: The Limeira Intrusion is an occurrence related to the Mesozoic continental flood basalts of Paraná Magmatic Province, cropping out at the eastern São Paulo state. It is made up of basic-intermediate rocks with a great diversity of structures, textures and modal compositions, related to specific evolutionary process in a magma chamber. Previous geological and stratigraphic evidence suggests it has a lopolithic-like geometry rather than a conventional sill-like, assumed for most regional similar occurrences. 2D forward modeling of magnetometric data, based on available aerial and newly obtained ground data integrated with in situ rock magnetic susceptibility measurements, were used to test such hypothesis. The results, even considering intrinsic drawbacks of magnetometric theoretical models, are compatible with the geologic-based presumed intrusion geometry. The determination of intrusive bodies geometry is quite significant to explain their different emplacement mechanisms. In the case of Limeira Intrusion, the results suggest that the emplacement mechanism may occur, apparently, by inner-accretion of fresh magmatic pulses in its central region. Importantly, the magmatic evolution of lopolith-like basic-intermediate intrusions may open the way for extensive differentiation processes, with strong implications to petrology and metallogenesis. <![CDATA[Cretaceous carbonatites of the southeastern Brazilian Platform: a review]]> ABSTRACT: This paper reviews general aspects of alkaline-carbonatitic rocks of Brazilian, Paraguayan and Bolivian terrains. Although 30 such occurrences are known in literature, only the major ones have been thoroughly investigated. The carbonatites are of Cretaceous age, with two well-defined Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous generation episodes. A clear tectonic control by ancient structural features such as archs, lineaments and faults characterizes most cases. The rocks exhibit a large compositional variation, in decreasing orders of abundance from calciocarbonatites to magnesiocarbonatites to ferrocarbonatites. In some complexes, they form multistage intrusions. C-O isotopes indicate that, in general, the carbonatites were affected by post-magmatic processes associated with the topographic level of emplacement and low-temperature H 2 O-CO 2 rich fluids responsible for the increased amount of heavy carbon and oxygen. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions similar to those of coeval alkaline silicate rocks, ranging from depleted to enriched mantle sources, have been influenced by two distinct metasomatic events in Proterozoic at 2,0-1.4 Ga and 1.0-0.5 Ga. Sr-Nd-Pb-Os data seem related to an isotopically enriched source, their chemical heterogeneities reflecting a depleted mantle that was metasomatized by small-volume melts and by fluids rich in incompatible elements. Fractional crystallization and liquid immiscibility are believed to be the most effective processes in the formation of the Cretaceous carbonatites, with minor contribution of crustal contamination. Pb isotopic ratios yield evidence that HIMU and EM I mantle components played an important role in the genesis of the carbonatitic magma. <![CDATA[Nepheline syenites to syenites and granitic rocks of the Itatiaia Alkaline Massif, Southeastern Brazil: new geological insights into a migratory ring Complex]]> ABSTRACT: The Itatiaia Alkaline Massif comprises some of the largest meso-cenozoic alkaline igneous occurrences in Brazil, covering over 215 km2 between the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It appears as an elongated, 30-km long and 4.5-11.5-km wide SE-NW-trending body emplaced along accommodation zones of the Continental Rift of Southern Brazil, intruding metapelites, orthogneiss and granites of the Brasília and Ribeira fold belts. New data and geological mapping suggest that the massif evolved from a migratory magmatic center manifested as ring structures and successive moon-shaped intrusions from SE to NW in three sectors of distinct lithological and geomorphological characteristics: Southeastern, Central and Northwestern. The lithological variants in the three sectors present themselves as discrete intrusive bodies, comprising feldspathoid-bearing and quartz-bearing syenites, porphyritic to breccioid trachytes, granite, monzonite, gabbro and trachybasalt, which can be grouped into 21 units. These rocks occur in five petrographical sets: plagioclase-free nepheline syenites, plagioclase-bearing nepheline syenite and pulaskites, nordmarkite-granite series, anti-rapakivi associations and basic rocks. Sin- to tardi-plutonic dykes of nephelinites, phonolites, trachytes and rhyolites are also present. <![CDATA[Upper Cretaceous weakly to strongly silica-undersaturated alkaline dike series of the Mantiqueira Range, Serra do Mar alkaline province: Crustal assimilation processes and mantle source signatures]]> ABSTRACT: Three series of alkaline dikes are characterized in a restricted area of the Mantiqueira Range: a weakly silica-undersaturated series (normative ne &lt; 7), of potassic character, represented by basanite, tephrites, alkali basalts, basaltic trachyandesites, phonotephrites, tephriphonolites, and trachyandesites, an intermediate series (7 &gt; normative ne &gt; 13), of potassic character, consisting only of basanites and tephrites, and a strongly silica-undersaturated series (normative ne &gt; 13), of sodic character, consisting of basanites, tephrites, phonotephrites, and phonolites. Ar-Ar data for biotite from a tephriphonolite dike yielded an average age of 85.4±0.4 Ma. All three series show similar evolution trends controlled mainly by early-fractionation of olivine, spinel and clinopyroxene and, secondly, fractionation of plagioclase and apatite. Different degrees of crustal assimilation are suggested for each series. Assimilation processes are responsible for the wide 87 Sr/ 86 Sr i (0.70447-0.71172) and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd i (0.51237-0.51244) ranges, for the increased K 2 O/Na 2 O, Ba/Sr and Rb/Sr ratios, and for the reduced Ce/Pb ratios. In general, a significant contribution from partially melted host rocks is associated to the weakly silica-undersaturated potassic series. A phlogopite-bearing carbonate-metasomatized heterogeneous peridotite source accounts for the main chemical variations in the least contaminated samples of each series. Geochemical signatures of the strongly sodic alkaline series indicate a greater contribution from carbonated pyroxene-rich veins in the mantle source. <![CDATA[Melanite-bearing nepheline syenite fragments and <sup>40</sup>Ar/<sup>39</sup>Ar age of phlogopite megacrysts in conduit breccia from the Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif (MG/SP), and implications]]> ABSTRACT: The Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif, located in southeast Brazil, is composed of tinguaites, as well as phonolites and nepheline syenites (NeS), together with assorted pyroclastic rocks. The latter constitute deposits within the Vale do Quartel, and show fragments of alkaline rocks (NeS, tinguaites), basaltic and ultramafic volcanics/subvolvanics, sandstones, and quartz-feldspathic rocks from the crystalline basement. NeS fragments with melanite, previously unknown, and cm-sized fragments of phlogopite megacrysts from related conduit breccia were chosen for detailed studies. The NeS fragments are medium- to coarse grained and contain K-feldspar (Or 95-83 ), secondary albite (Ab 97 ), altered nepheline, clinopyroxene (diopside, minor hedenbergite) and partially altered, zoned, idiomorphic melanite. These NeS fragments are typically metaluminous, and point to the existence of similar intrusions hidden at depth, an important input to the massif’s petrology. The phlogopite megacrysts are compositionally homogeneous, with high Ti, Mg and Al contents; Ba and F are minor components. Two phlogopite aliquots were dated and yielded identical 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plateau ages of 87.1(± 0.5) Ma and 86.6(± 0.5) Ma, which represent minimum and maximum values for phlogopite crystallization and breccia emplacement, respectively. Previously obtained ages for the Poços de Caldas rocks are concentrated in the 75-86 Ma range interval. <![CDATA[New age determinations for the Banhadão and Itapirapuã complexes in the Ribeira Valley, southern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT: New age determinations by Ar-Ar and U-Pb SHRIMP for the alkaline complexes of Banhadão and Itapirapuã that occur in the Ribeira Valley are in agreement with the previously radiometric K-Ar ages available in literature. Ar-Ar ages on biotite for Banhadão range in the 106-110 Ma interval, and suggest a minimum age of 106 Ma for the complex. Ar-Ar data on biotite for Itapirapuã are more uniform, indicating an age of 102 Ma for the complex. U-Pb SHRIMP determinations on titanite from Itapirapuã melanite syenitic rocks yielded an age of ~106 Ma. Thus, the age interval of 100 and 110 Ma does exist indeed, suggesting an intermediate magmatic pulse between the already well-defined peaks of 80-90 Ma and 130-140 Ma for the alkaline rocks in southern Brazil, confirming the periodicity of the magmatism.