Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism]]> vol. 62 num. 6 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The challenge continues]]> <![CDATA[Critical analysis of molecular tests in indeterminate thyroid nodules]]> <![CDATA[Can current molecular tests help in the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodule FNAB?]]> ABSTRACT Approximately 15–30% of all thyroid nodules evaluated with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are classified as cytologically indeterminate. The stepwise unraveling of the molecular etiology of thyroid nodules has provided the basis for a better understanding of indeterminate samples and an opportunity to decrease diagnostic surgery in this group of patients. Over the last 15 years, several studies have tested different methodologies to detect somatic mutations (by polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing, for example), and to identify differentially expressed genes or microRNA, aiming at developing molecular tests to improve the presurgical diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate nodules. In this review, we will provide an overview of the currently available molecular tests and the impact of mutation testing on the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. We will also review current published data and future perspectives in molecular testing of thyroid nodule FNAB and describe the current Brazilian experience with this diagnostic approach. Based on currently available data, especially for countries outside the US-Europe axis, a rational use of these tests must be made to avoid errors with regard to test indication and interpretation of test outcomes. In addition to clinical, radiological, and cytological features, we still need to determine local malignancy rates and conduct more independent validation and comparative performance studies of these tests before including them into our routine approach to indeterminate FNAB. <![CDATA[The characteristics of blood glucose fluctuations in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus in the stable stage]]> ABSTRACT Objective: The aim was to characterize blood glucose fluctuations in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1DM) at the stable stage using continuous blood glucose monitoring systems (CGMSs). Subjects and methods: Ten patients with FT1DM and 20 patients with classic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (the control group) were monitored using CGMSs for 72 hours. Results: The CGMS data showed that the mean blood glucose (MBG), the standard deviation of the blood glucose (SDBG), the mean amplitude glycemic excursions (MAGE), the blood glucose areas and the percentages of blood glucose levels below 13.9 mmol/L were similar between the two groups. However, the percentage of blood glucose levels below 3.9 mmol/L was significantly higher in the FT1DM group compared to the T1DM group (p &lt; 0.05). The minimum (Min) blood glucose level in the FT1DM group was significantly lower than that of the T1DM group (p &lt; 0.05). Patients with FT1DM had severe dysfunction of the islet beta cells and alpha cells compared to patients with T1DM, as indicated by lower C-peptide values and higher glucagon/C-peptide values. Conclusion: In conclusion, patients with FT1DM at the stable stage were more prone to hypoglycemic episodes as recorded by CGMSs, and they had a greater association with severe dysfunction of both the beta and alpha islet cells compared to patients with T1DM. <![CDATA[Heart rate response to graded exercise test of elderly subjects in different ranges of TSH levels]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Life expectancy is increasing worldwide and studies have been demonstrating that elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in elderly is associated with some better health outcomes. This elevation is somewhat physiological as aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate (HR) response during a graded exercise test and its recovery in healthy elderly, comparing subjects within serum TSH in the lower limit of reference range to those within the TSH in the upper limit. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 86 healthy elderly aged 71.5 ± 5.1 years, with serum TSH between 0.4 – 4.0 mUl/mL. The participants were divided into two groups according to TSH level: &lt; 1.0 mUl/mL (n = 13) and ≥ 1.0 µUI/mL (n = 73). All participants performed an ergometric test on a treadmill. The HR was recorded and analyzed at rest, during exercise and during the three minutes immediately after exercise. Results: No differences were observed in relation to HR at peak of exercise (TSH &lt; 1.0 µUI/mL: 133.9 ± 22.5 bpm vs. TSH ≥ 1.0 µUI/mL: 132.4 ± 21.3 bpm; p = 0.70) and during the first minute of recovery phase (TSH &lt; 1.0 µUI/mL: 122.3 ± 23.1 bpm vs. TSH ≥ 1.0 µUI/mL: 115.7 ± 18.4 bpm p = 0.33). The groups also presented similar chronotropic index (TSH &lt; 1.0 µUI/mL: 78.1 ± 30.6 vs. TSH ≥ 1.0 µUI/mL: 79.5 ± 26.4; p = 0.74). Conclusion: In this sample studied, there were no difference between lower and upper TSH level concerning HR response during rest, peak of exercise and exercise recovery. <![CDATA[Risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation (NODAT): a Brazilian single center study]]> ABSTRACT Objectives: This study aims to verify the new-onset diabetes after kidney transplant (NODAT) incidence in recipients within 1 year after kidney transplantation from a single center in Southern Brazil and to assess the associated conditions. Subjects and methods: A retrospective study of 258 post-renal transplant patients was performed. Demographic (gender, age, ethnic background) and clinical (origin of graft, associated infections, body mass index (BMI) at transplant time and 6 and 12 months after, causes of renal failure, and comorbidities) data were analyzed. All patients were on tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone treatment. Patients with and without NODAT were compared. Results: A NODAT incidence of 31.2% was noted 1 year post transplantation. In the univariate analysis, patients with NODAT were older (p = 0.001), mostly had African–American ethnic background (p = 0.02), and had renal failure secondary to high blood pressure (HBP) (p = 0.001). The group of patients with NODAT also had more incidence of post-transplant HBP (p = 0.01), heart failure (p = 0.02), and dyslipidemia (p = 0.001). Logistic regression showed that African–American ethnic background, post-transplant HBP, and dyslipidemia were independently associated with NODAT. Conclusion: This study shows a NODAT incidence that is greater in patients with African–American ethnic background and that is associated with HBP and dyslipidemia. <![CDATA[Higher prevalence of permanent congenital hypothyroidism in the Southwest of Iran mostly caused by dyshormonogenesis: a five-year follow-up study]]> ABSTRACT Objective: The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) varies globally. This 5-year study aimed to determine the prevalence of permanent CH in the southwest of Iran. Materials and methods: Between January 2007 and December 2009, all newborns in Ahvaz, the biggest city in the southwest of Iran, were screened for CH using a heel-prick sample for thyrotropin (TSH) levels. Subjects with TSH ≥ 5 mU/L were evaluated for T4-TSH. Infants with T4 &lt; 6.5 µg/dL, TSH &gt; 10 mU/L, and normal T4 but persistent (&gt; 60 days) high TSH were considered to have CH. After the third birthday, treatment was discontinued, and T4-TSH was reevaluated; subjects with TSH ≥ 10 mU/L were investigated using thyroid Tc99 scintigraphy (TS). Based on TS, they were classified as normal, dysgenetic, or athyretic (agenesis). Results: Screening was performed for 86,567 neonates, and 194 were confirmed to have CH (100 males; F/M = 0.94; overall incidence 1:446). After the third birthday, reevaluation was performed in all (except 18 that were not accessible). From 176 patients, 81 (46%) were diagnosed with permanent CH, and 95 were discharged as transient. Considering the same percentage in the lost cases, the prevalence of permanent CH was found to be 1:970. TS performed for 53 of the permanent subjects found agenesis/dysgenesis in 25 (F:M = 15:10) and a normal result in 28 (F:M = 11:17), indicating dyshormonogenesis as the cause in more than 50% of subjects. Conclusions: The incidence of CH in this area was found to be higher than that in other countries but less than the incidence rate reported in central Iran. The large number of transient cases of CH suggests environmental or maternal causes for the incidence rather than a genetic basis. <![CDATA[Conversion to Graves disease from Hashimoto thyroiditis: a study of 24 patients]]> ABSTRACT Objective: The conversion of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) to hyperthyroidism due to thyrotropin receptor antibodies is intriguing and considered rare. The contribution of TSH receptor blocking antibodies (TRAb), which may be stimulators (TSAb) or blockers (TBAb), is suspected. We describe clinical and biological variables in a series of patients switching from Hashimoto's thyroiditis to Grave's disease. Subjects and methods: Retrospective case study of 24 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis followed during 48 ± 36 months that developed later Graves’ disease (GD). These variables were analysed in the hypo and hyperthyroid phase: age, sex, initial TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), anti-TPO, TBII antibodies, parietal cell autoantibodies, time between hypo and hyperthyroidism, thyroid volume and levothyroxine doses (LT). Results: In HT, mean TSH was 9.4 ± 26.1 UI/L and levothyroxine treatment was 66.2 ± 30.8 µg/day. The switch to GD was observed 38 ± 45 months after HT diagnosis. As expected, we found significant differences on TSH, FT3, FT4 and TBAb levels. Three out of 14 patients had parietal cell autoantibodies. In two of these three cases there was an Helicobacter pylori infection. There were no significant differences between HT and GD groups with respect to thyroid volume. Conclusions: To our knowledge, large series documenting the conversion of HT to GD are scarce. Although rare, this phenomenon should not be misdiagnosed. Suspicion should be raised whenever thyroxine posology must be tapered down during the follow-up of HT patients. Further immunological and genetic studies are needed to explain this unusual autoimmune change. <![CDATA[Sex effects on the association between sarcopenia EWGSOP and osteoporosis in outpatient older adults: data from the SARCOS study]]> ABSTRACT Objective: The objective was to evaluate the association between sarcopenia (EWGSOP) and osteoporosis in older adults. Subjects and methods: This is a cross sectional analysis of a baseline evaluation of the SARCopenia and OSteoporosis in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Diseases Study (SARCOS). Three hundred and thirty-two subjects over 65 years of age were evaluated. Sarcopenia was determined by EWGSOP flowchart and Osteoporosis was established by WHO's criteria. Physical function, comorbidities and medications were evaluated. Results: Women were older (79.8 ± 7.2 years) than men (78.21 ± 6.7 years) (p = 0.042). Osteoporosis occurred in 24.8% of men, and in 42.7% of women (p &lt; 0.001); sarcopenia occurred in 25.5% of men and in 17.7%, of women (p = 0.103). Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 68% of sarcopenic women, however only 20.7% (p = 0.009) of women with osteoporosis had sarcopenia; in older men, 44.7% of individuals with sarcopenia presented osteoporosis and 42.9% (p = 0.013) of men with osteoporosis showed sarcopenia. In an adjusted logistic regression analyses for sarcopenia, osteoporosis presented a statistically significant association with sarcopenia in men [OR: 2.930 (95% CI: 1.044-8.237; p = 0.041)] but not in women [OR: 2.081 (0.787-5.5; p = 0.142)]; in the adjusted logistic regression analyses for osteoporosis, a statistically significant association occurred in men [OR: 2.984 (95% CI: 1.144-7.809; p = 0.025)], but not in women [OR: 2.093 (0.962-3.714; p = 0.137)]. Conclusion: According to sex, there are significant differences in the association between sarcopenia EWGSOP and osteoporosis in outpatient older adults. It is strong and significant in males; in females, despite showing a positive trend, it was not statistically significant. <![CDATA[A pioneering <em>RET</em> genetic screening study in the State of Ceará, Brazil, evaluating patients with medullary thyroid cancer and at-risk relatives: experience with 247 individuals]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Initial diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is frequently associated with advanced stages and a poor prognosis. Thus, the need for earlier diagnoses and detection in relatives at risk for the disease has led to increased use of RET genetic screening. Subjects and methods: We performed RET screening in 247 subjects who were referred to the Brazilian Research Consortium for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (BRASMEN) Center in the State of Ceará. Direct genetic sequencing was used to analyze exons 8, 10, 11, and 13-16 in MTC index cases and specific exons in at risk relatives. Afterward, clinical follow-up was offered to all the patients with MTC and their affected relatives. Results: RET screening was performed in 60 MTC index patients and 187 at-risk family members. At the initial clinical assessment of the index patients, 54 (90%) were diagnosed with apparently sporadic disease and 6 (10%) diagnosed with hereditary disease. After RET screening, we found that 31 (52%) index patients had sporadic disease, and 29 (48%) had hereditary disease. Regarding at-risk relatives, 73/187 were mutation carriers. Mutations in RET codon 804 and the rare p.M918V mutation were the most prevalent. Conclusions: Performing RET screening in Ceará allowed us to identify a different mutation profile in this region compared with other areas. RET screening also enabled the diagnosis of a significant number of hereditary MTC patients who were initially classified as sporadic disease patients and benefited their relatives, who were unaware of the risks and the consequences of bearing a RET mutation. <![CDATA[Rare complications of multikinase inhibitor treatment]]> ABSTRACT Objective: The advent of multikinase inhibitor (MKI) therapy has led to a radical change in the treatment of patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate rare adverse events that occurred in less than 5% of patients in clinical trials in a subset of patients treated in our hospital. Subjects and methods: Out of 760 patients with thyroid cancer followed up with in our Division of Endocrinology, 29 (3.8%) received treatment with MKIs. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 53 years (range 20-70), and 75.9% of them were women. Sorafenib was prescribed as first-line treatment to 23 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and as second-line treatment to one patient with advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Vandetanib was indicated as first-line treatment in 6 patients with MTC and lenvatinib as second-line treatment in two patients with progressive disease under sorafenib treatment. Results: During the follow-up of treatment (mean 13.7 ± 7 months, median 12 months, range 6-32), 5/29 (17.2%) patients presented rare adverse events. These rare adverse effects were: heart failure, thrombocytopenia, and squamous cell carcinoma during sorafenib therapy and squamous cell carcinoma and oophoritis with intestinal perforation during vandetanib treatment. Conclusions: About 3 to 5 years after the approval of MKI therapy, we learned that MKIs usually lead to adverse effects in the majority of patients. Although most of them are manageable, we still need to be aware of potentially serious and rare or unreported adverse effects that can be life-threatening. <![CDATA[Selective screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: How often do low-risk women cease to be treated following the new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association?]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Universal screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is not recommended by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) or the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE). This study evaluated the frequency of pregnant women that would have an indication for levothyroxine (L-T4) according to the new ATA/AACE guidelines among low-risk women without an indication for screening with TSH. Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of 412 pregnant women ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. These women were considered to be at low risk for thyroid dysfunction according to ATA/AACE and would not be candidates for screening with TSH. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and TSH were measured. Women who had TSH &gt; 2.5 mIU/L or TPOAb in the first trimester were submitted to subsequent evaluations in the second and third trimester. Results: In the first trimester, none of the pregnant women would have L-T4 therapy “recommended” and treatment would be “considered” in only two. In the second trimester, pregnant women with positive TPOAb or TSH &gt; 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester (n = 30) were reevaluated. L-T4 treatment would be “recommended” in only one woman and would be “considered” in two others. The 28 women that were not treated in the second trimester were reevaluated in the third trimester, but none of them would have L-T4 “recommended”. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that selective screening, recommended by ATA/AACE does not result in a significant loss of pregnant women with an indication for L-T4 treatment. <![CDATA[Early development of a gonadal tumor in a patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis]]> SUMMARY A gonadal tumor was diagnosed in the first months of life in a patient with genital ambiguity, a 45,X/46,XY karyotype, and mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Gonadal biopsies at the age of 3 months revealed dysgenetic testes and a gonadoblastoma on the right testis. Even though gonadal tumors are rare in childhood, this case indicates that prophylactic removal of dysgenetic gonads should be performed as early as possible, especially when the female sex is assigned to a patient with a Y-chromosome sequence. <![CDATA[Suprasellar chordoid glioma: a report of two cases]]> SUMMARY Chordoid glioma (CG) is considered a slow growing glial neoplasm. We report two new cases with endocrinological presentation, management and outcome. Case reports: 1) An 18 year-old female patient was admitted due to headaches, nausea and vomiting and visual abnormalities. She was in amenorrhea. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a 35 mm-diameter sellar and suprasellar mass. An emergency ventricular peritoneal valve was placed due to obstructive hydrocephalus. Transcraneal surgery was performed. The patient developed central hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and transient diabetes insipidus; she never recovered spontaneous menstrual cycles. Histopathologic study showed cells in cords, inside a mucinous stroma, positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Due to residual tumor gamma knife radiosurgery was performed. Three years after surgery, the patient is lucid, with hypopituitarism under replacement. 2) A 46 year-old woman complained about a three year-history of amenorrhea, galactorrhea and headache. An MRI showed a solid-cystic sellar mass 40 mm-diameter that extended to the suprasellar cistern. She had hypogonatropic hypogonadism and mild hyperprolactinemia. The tumor mass was removed via nasal endoscopic approach. Histopathological study reported cellular proliferation of glial lineage positive for GFAP. The patient evolved with central hypothyroidism and diabetes insipidus. She was re-operated for fistula and again under the diagnosis of extradural abscess. She evolved with cardiorespiratory descompensation and death, suspected to be due to a thromboembolism. In conclusion, the first case confirms that best treatment for CG is surgery considering radiotherapy as an adjuvant therapy. The other case, on the contrary, illustrates the potentially fatal evolution due to surgical complications. <![CDATA[Hypothyroidism associated with short bowel syndrome in children: a report of six cases]]> SUMMARY Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the leading cause of intestinal failure in children, a condition of absence of sufficient bowel to meet the nutritional and metabolic needs of a growing individual. The treatment of patients in this situation is based on the association of parenteral and enteral nutrition for prolonged periods of time until intestinal rehabilitation occurs with complete enteral nutrition autonomy. Six consecutive cases of children with SBS (residual intestinal length of 5 cm to 75 cm) were managed with this program and were diagnosed with associated hypothyroidism during the treatment (ages at the diagnosis 5 months to 12 years). All patients were successfully treated with oral hormone reposition therapy and in one patient, the replacement was performed via rectal enemas due to a complete absence of small bowel. Although iodine deficiency associated to long-term parenteral nutrition is a well-known condition, this is the first report in the literature about an expressive number of patients with hypothyroidism detected in patients with SBS during the prolonged treatment for intestinal rehabilitation.