Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism]]> vol. 62 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Radioguided localization of recurrent lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer - Where are we now?]]> <![CDATA[Metabolomics of thyroid nodules and the future]]> <![CDATA[Guided intraoperative scintigraphic tumor targeting of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a single-center report]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to present our experiences related to performing neck surgery using the guided intraoperative scintigraphic tumor targeting (GOSTT) procedure for patients who had locally recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and who had undergone previous thyroid surgery. Subjects and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 11 patients who had locally recurrent or persistent DTC, who had undergone previous surgery, and for whom reoperation was planned for metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs). We performed the neck surgery using the GOSTT procedure on all patients and at a single academic institution. Results: The 11 patients had a total of 26 LNs, as marked with a radiotracer, and those LNs’ mean size was 14.7 ± 8.2 mm (range: 5-34 mm). Histopathological examinations revealed DTC metastasis in all 26 of the preoperatively marked LNs. Of the 11 patients, only one needed a reoperation in the neck; she had another successful surgery (also using the GOSTT procedure). In the evaluation of the patients’ final status, all were disease-free in their necks. There also were no GOSTT-associated postoperative complications. Conclusion: The GOSTT procedure is a useful, successful, inexpensive, and comfortable procedure for marking and mapping metastatic LNs, especially in DTC patients who have undergone previous surgery. <![CDATA[3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a powerful diagnostic modality for assessment of thyroid nodules]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a powerful tool for structural studies of chemical compounds and biomolecules and also documented promising findings as a potential imaging technology in thyroid oncology. This prospective study was to ascertain the clinical significance of 3 Tesla MRS in the evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules (TNs) as an ancillary diagnostic technique for thyroid carcinoma. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T at echo- times (TEs) 136 and 270 ms was carried out on 15 patients with total number of 32 TNs larger than 1 cm3, which all were surgically resected. Choline (Chol) to creatine (Cr) ratio was assessed at 136 and 270 TEs on each nodule and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine optimal cut-off point. The findings were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results: There were 23 benign and 9 malignant lesions (7 papillary and 2 follicular thyroid carcinomas). The mean values of Chol/Cr at 136 and 270 TEs was 2.28 ± 3.65 and 1.52 ± 1.67 respectively and the difference between benign and malignant nodules was only significant at 136 TEs. The study revealed that Chol/ Cr ratio cut-off point of 2.5 best correlates with histopathology results (sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 100%; PPV = 100%; NPV= 92%). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy might be a specific modality for the evaluation of thyroid nodules in differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid tissue. However, a larger series would give much greater confidence that this state-of-the-art technology will worth pursuing in clinical practice. <![CDATA[Is FGF-23 an early indicator of atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction in patients with gestational diabetes?]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a phosphorus-regulating hormone and plays a role in the pathogenesis of myocardial hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of FGF-23 levels with echocardiographic parameters and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with gestational diabetes. Subjects and methods: Fifty-four pregnant patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (age, 31.12 ± 5.72 years) and 33 healthy pregnant women (age, 29.51 ± 4.92 years) were involved in the study. Fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), FGF23, echocardiographic parameters, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) were evaluated in the two groups. Results: The two groups were not significantly different in age, sex, body mass index, lipid profile, or blood pressure. Insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), FGF-23 levels, CIMT, left ventricular (LV) mass, LV mass index and myocardial performance index (MPI) were significantly higher in the GDM group. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with FGF-23, and insulin was positively correlated with FGF-23. Additionally, FGF-23 was positively correlated with CIMT, LV mass index, and MPI. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that monitoring serum FGF-23 may be useful as a non-invasive indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with GDM. <![CDATA[Impact of an inpatient multidisciplinary glucose control management program]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Glycemic control has been increasingly recognized as a critical element in inpatient care, but optimal management of blood glucose in the hospital setting remains challenging. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate the impact of the implementation of an inpatient multidisciplinary glucose control management program on glucose control in hospitalized patients. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records and glucose monitoring data obtained by point- of-care testing (POCT) in hospitalized patients before (May 2014) and after (June 2015 and May 2017) the implementation of the program. Results: We analyzed 6888, 7290, and 7669 POCTs from 389, 545, and 475 patients in May 2014, June 2015, and May 2017, respectively. Hyperglycemia (≥ 180 mg/ dL) occurred in 23.5%, 19.6%, and 19.3% POCTs in May 2014, June 2015, and May/2017, respectively (p &lt; 0.001), while severe hyperglycemia (≥ 300 mg/dL) was observed in 2.5%, 2.2%, and 1.8% of them, respectively (p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (≥ 180 mg/dL) reduced significantly from May 2014 to June 2015 (16.3%, p &lt; 0.001) and from May 2014 to May 2017 (178%, p &lt; 0.001). No significant changes occurred in hypoglycemic parameters. Conclusions: The implementation of an inpatient multidisciplinary glucose control management program led to significant reductions in hyperglycemic events. The key elements for this achievement were the development of institutional inpatient glycemic control protocols, establishment of a multidisciplinary team, and continuing educational programs for hospital personnel. Altogether, these actions resulted in improvements in care processes, patient safety, and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients. <![CDATA[ABSI is a poor predictor of insulin resistance in Chinese adults and elderly without diabetes]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Recently, a new obesity index (A Body Shape Index, ABSI) based on waist circumference (WC) was developed, and high ABSI corresponds to a more central concentration of body volume. It is well known that central obesity is closely linked with insulin resistance (IR). Therefore, our study aimed to examine the discriminatory power of ABSI for IR in Chinese adults and elderly without diabetes. Subjects and methods: In 2007, a cross-sectional study was made. In this study, 570 individuals without diabetes were available for analysis (male: 56.1%, mean age: 62.3 ± 6.5 years). Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were determined to identify variables/models that could predict insulin resistance. Results: ABSI was associated with IR, the cut-off points was 0.0785 m11/6kg-2/3 to identifying IR and the area under the ROC (AUC) curve was 0.618 (95%CI: 0.561-0.675), which was not better than body mass index BMI (AUC = 0.753; 95%CI: 0.706-0.801), WC (AUC = 0.749; 95%CI: 0.700-0.797), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG, AUC = 0.752; 95%CI: 0.705-0.799). Furthermore, combination with ABSI could improve the discriminatory power of other variables for IR. The AUC curve increased from 0.753 to 0.771for BMI, 0.749 to 0.754 for WC, 0.752 to 0.769 for FPG, respectively. Conclusions: ABSI is associated with IR in the general Chinese adults and elderly without diabetes, but the discriminatory power for IR is poor. It is recommended that ABSI be used in combination with other variables. <![CDATA[Exercise training improves quality of life in women with subclinical hypothyroidism: a randomized clinical trial]]> ABSTRACT Objective: The aim was to evaluate the quality of life (HRQoL) in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT) after 16 weeks of endurance training. Subjects and methods: In the first phase, a cross-sectional study was conducted in which 22 women with sHT (median age: 41.5 (interquartile range: 175) years, body mass index: 26.2 (8.7) kg/m2, thyroid stimulating hormone &gt; 4.94 mIU/L and free thyroxine between 0.8 and 1.3 ng/dL were compared to a group of 33 euthyroid women concerned to HRQoL. In the second phase, a randomized clinical trial was conducted where only women with sHT were randomly divided into two groups: sHT-Tr (n = 10) - participants that performed an exercise program - and sHT-Sed (n = 10) - controls. Exercise training consisted of 60 minutes of aerobic activities (bike and treadmill), three times a week, for 16 weeks. The HRQoL was assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire in the early and at the end of four months. Results: Women with sHT had lower scores on functional capacity domain in relation to the euthyroid ones (770 ± 23.0 vs. 88.8 ± 14.6; p = 0.020). The sHT-Tr group improved functional capacity, general health, emotional aspects, mental and physical component of HRQoL after training period, while the sHT-Sed group showed no significant changes. Conclusion: After 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in women with sHT. <![CDATA[Thyroid cancer burden and economic impact on the Brazilian public health system]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Recent data indicates an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer not accompanied by a proportional increase in mortality, suggesting overdiagnosis, which may represent a big public health problem, particularly where resources are scarce. This article aims to describe and evaluate the procedures related to investigation of thyroid nodules and treatment and follow-up of thyroid cancer and the costs for the Brazilian public health system between 2008 and 2015. Materials and methods: Data on procedures related to investigation of thyroid nodules and treatment/follow-up of thyroid cancer between 2008 and 2015 in Brazil were collected from the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Datasus) website. Results: A statistically significant increase in the use of procedures related to thyroid nodules investigation and thyroid cancer treatment and follow-up was observed in Brazil, though a reduction was noted for procedures related to the treatment of more aggressive thyroid cancer, such as total thyroidectomy with neck dissection and higher radioiodine activities such as 200 and 250 milicuries (mCi). The procedures related to thyroid nodules investigation costs increased by 91% for thyroid ultrasound (p = 0.0003) and 128% in thyroid nodule biopsy (p &lt; 0.001). Costs related to treatment and follow-up related-procedures increased by 120%. Conclusion: The increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Brazil is directly associated with an increased use of diagnostic tools for thyroid nodules, which leads to an upsurge in thyroid cancer treatment and followup-related procedures. These data suggest that substantial resources are being used for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of a potentially indolent condition. <![CDATA[Evaluation of redox profiles in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism at two different levels of TSH suppression]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the relationship between exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and oxidative stress through the analysis of the redox profile of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism exogenous (SCH) grade I (TSH = 0.1 to 0.4 IU/mL) and grade II (TSH &lt; 0.1 IU/mL). Subjects and methods: We analyzed 46 patients with SCH due to the use of TSH suppressive therapy with LT4 after total thyroidectomy along with 6 control euthyroid individuals (3M and 3W). Patients were divided into two groups, G1 with TSH ≥ 0.1-0.4 IU/mL (n = 25; and 7M 14W) and G2 with TSH &lt; 0.1 IU/mL (n = 25; and 4M 21W). Venous blood samples were collected to measure the levels of markers for oxidative damage (TBARS, FOX and protein carbonylation), muscle and liver damage (CK, AST, ALT, GGT) and antioxidants (GSH, GSSG and catalase). Results: Individuals in G2 showed a GSH/GSSG ratio ~ 30% greater than those in G1 (p = 0.004) and a catalase activity that was 4 times higher (p = 0.005). For lipid peroxidation, the levels measured in G2 were higher than both control and G1 (p = 0.05). No differences were observed for both protein carbonyl markers. G1 and G2 presented with greater indications of cell injury markers than the control group. Conclusion: TSH suppression therapy with LT4 that results in subclinical hyperthyroidism can cause a redox imbalance. The greater antioxidant capacity observed in the more suppressed group was not sufficient to avoid lipid peroxidation and cellular damage. <![CDATA[Lipid disorders among Black Africans non-users of lipid-lowering medication]]> ABSTRACT Objective: Angola is a sub-Saharan African country where the population has scarce access to lipidlowering medication. We sought to determine the frequency of lipid disorders among Angolan nonusers of lipid-lowering medication. Material and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a sample of 604 workers from the public sector. Blood pressure and anthropometric data were measured along with biochemical parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). LDL-C to HDL-C ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C) was obtained from LDL-C and HDL-C levels. Results: High frequencies of elevated blood pressure (44.8%), metabolic syndrome (20.2%), increased TC (39.2%) and increased LDL-C (19.3%) were found. Low HDL-C was more frequent in women (62.4% vs. 36.1%, p &lt; 0.001). Isolated hypercholesterolemia was more frequent in men (9.6% vs. 2.5%, p &lt; 0.001). Among men TC, TG, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were higher and HDL-C was lower in obese than in low-weight and normal-weight participants. Among women TC, TG, LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were higher in obese than in normal-weight participants. Significant linear trend of increasing TC and LDL-C levels as age increased was detected for both genders (p for trend &lt; 0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study showed a high frequency of lipid disorders in Angolan non-users of lipid-lowering medication. <![CDATA[Congenital hyperinsulinism in two siblings with <em>ABCC8</em> mutation: same genotype, different phenotypes]]> SUMMARY Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a heterogenous disease caused by insulin secretion regulatory defects, being ABCC8/KCNJ11 the most commonly affected genes. Therapeutic options include diazoxide, somatostatin analogues and surgery, which is curative in focal CHI. We report the case of two siblings (born two years apart) that presented themselves with hypoketotic hyperinsulinemic persistent hypoglycemias during neonatal period. The diagnosis of diffuse CHI due to an ABCC8 compound mutation (c.3576delG and c.742C&gt;T) was concluded. They did not benefit from diazoxide therapy (or pancreatectomy performed in patient number 1) yet responded to somatostatin analogues. Patient number 1 developed various neurological deficits (including epilepsy), however patient number 2 experienced an entirely normal neurodevelopment. We believe this case shows how previous knowledge of the firstborn sibling's disease contributed to a better and timelier medical care in patient number 2, which could potentially explain her better neurological outcome despite their same genotype. <![CDATA[Insulin autoimmune syndrome in an occidental woman: a case report and literature review]]> SUMMARY Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS, Hirata's disease) is a rare hypoglycemic disorder characterized by spontaneous hypoglycemia associated with extremely high circulating insulin levels and positive anti-insulin antibody results. Thus far, most cases have been reported in Asian countries, notably Japan, with few cases reported in western countries. As a possible cause, it is associated with the use of drugs containing sulfhydryl radicals, such as captopril. This report refers to a 63-year-old female Brazilian patient with a history of postprandial hypoglycemia. After extensive investigation and exclusion of other causes, her hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was considered to have likely been induced by captopril. Most cases of IAS are self-limiting. However, dietary management, corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and rituximab have already been used to treat patients with IAS. In our case, after discontinuation of captopril, an initial decrease in insulin autoantibody levels was observed followed by improvement in episodes of hypoglycemia. Although it is a rare disease, IAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Patients with suspected IAS must be screened for autoimmunity-related drugs for insulin. Initial clinical suspicion of IAS can avoid unnecessary costs associated with imaging examinations and/or invasive surgical procedures.