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Revista Brasileira de Entomologia

Print version ISSN 0085-5626On-line version ISSN 1806-9665

Rev. Bras. entomol. vol.61 no.2 São Paulo Apr./Jun. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbe.2016.12.006 

Systematics, Morphology and Biogeography

New records of chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) from Brazilian birds (Aves) collected by Helmut Sick (1910-1991)

Kamila M.D. Kuabara*  1 

Michel P. Valim1 

1Universidade de São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil


ABSTRACT

We list the genera and species of chewing lice collected from birds by Helmut Sick, mainly from central Brazil, and particularly during the Roncador-Xingu Expedition, between 1943 and 1949. From the 123 samples studied, a wide variety of chewing louse genera and species were found, including 34 species as new records for Brazil, 37 species recorded from new Brazilian localities and 23 new host records. All material is deposited in the ectoparasite collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo.

Keywords: Heptapsogasteridae; Laemobothriidae; Menoponidae; Philopteridae; Ricinidae

Introduction

Chewing lice (order Phthiraptera, suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera) are hemimetabolous insects that are obligatory ectoparasites of birds and mammals, carrying out their entire life history in the plumage of the pelage of their hosts (Guimarães et al., 2001; Johnson and Clayton, 2003; Linardi, 2012). They include species that are specialized to live on feathers of distinct regions of the body, such as head, wings or body feathers (Clay, 1949; Johnson and Clayton, 2003; Johnson et al., 2012). They are small and wingless, ranging from 0.3 to 11 mm in length with females usually larger than males. They have large mandibles, a dorsoventrally flattened body covered by setae and scansorial legs that facilitate their hold on the feathers to avoid being removed during preening by the host (Guimarães et al., 2001; Linardi, 2012).

Most of the material we studied was collected during a historical period in Brazil, known as ‘The March to the West' ("A marcha para o oeste"). This was a government initiative to explore and settle the Brazilian interior and was undertaken, in part, by the Roncador-Xingu Expedition (1943-1949), which went from the State of Goiás to that of Pará and had a German naturalist, Helmut Sick, in the team.

In 1942, earlier in his life, H. Sick was living in Espírito Santo, when Brazil declared war against Germany during the Second World War. Together with other German citizens, he was arrested and imprisoned in the notorious jail on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, for three years until his release in 1945 (Vuilleumier, 1998). After his release he was hired as naturalist by the former "Fundação Brasil Central", created to organize the Roncador-Xingu Expedition, to identify and catalog the fauna collected during the exploration of the region (Galvão, 2011). Afterwards, he was hired as a professor at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, where he carried out his career as an ornithologist until his death in March 1991 (Vuilleumier, 1998; Galvão, 2011). During his life, H. Sick collected vertebrates and invertebrates from all the places he had lived. This included avian chewing lice collected by the "Fundação Brasil Central" that was sent to the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP) for identification in the late 1940s.

The aim of this study is to increase knowledge about chewing lice from Brazil, especially regarding new records of species collected by H. Sick. Also to make an inventory of taxa from regions that were virtually unexplored at the time the specimens were collected.

Material and methods

All examined material was collected by Helmut Sick in Brazil and is deposited in the ectoparasite collection at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP). Specimen numbers are given for each louse specimen studied as well as for host specimens, as MZUSP and Museu Nacional da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) numbers. When host voucher numbers were missing or not registered yet, only H. Sick's original unique field numbers were used (indicated by starting with the letter "A.", for ‘Aves').

Geographic coordinates were taken from Paynter and Traylor (1991), besides the fifteen localities listed below by State:

  • Espírito Santo - Santa Teresa, 760 m (19°55' S 40°36' W);

  • Goiás - Aragarças, Rio Araguaia (15°53' S 52°15' W); same locality but at left bank of the river;

  • Mato Grosso - C. Teles Pires, Alto Tapajós (07°21' S 58°03' W); Chavantina, Rio das Mortes (14°40' S 52°21' W); Chavantina, Rio das Mortes, 4 leagues from SW (11°45' S 50°44' W); Diauarum, Alto Xingu (11°12' S 53°14' W); Garapu (13°13' S 52°37' W); Jacaré, Alto Xingu and Jacaré, Alto Xingu, Baixo Kuluene (12°00' S 53°24' W); and Pindaiba (14°58' S 52°19' W);

  • Pará - Jacaré, Alto Xinguacanga, Alto Tapajós (06°16' S 57°39' W);

  • Rio de Janeiro - Ilha Grande (23°09' S 44°14' W), Teresópolis (22°26' S 42°59' W) and Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Estrada do Rio Itatiaia, Itatiaia, 1500 m (22°23' S 44°38' W).

Acronyms for Brazilian States and the federal district used in distribution are: AL, Alagoas; AP, Amapá; AM, Amazonas; BA, Bahia; DF, Distrito Federal; ES, Espírito Santo; GO, Goiás; MA, Maranhão; MT, Mato Grosso; MS, Mato Grosso do Sul; MG, Minas Gerais; PA, Pará; PR, Paraná; RJ, Rio de Janeiro; RS, Rio Grande do Sul; RR, Roraima; SC, Santa Catarina; SP, São Paulo; TO, Tocantins.

Louse specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol since they were collected about 60 years ago. Each vial was individually examined under a stereomicroscope Leica EZ-40. During this stage specimens were sorted by sex and developmental stage. Data present on the original labels was noted. Specimens were then permanently mounted on slides according to Palma (1978), except during the maceration stage in KOH where specimens were heated in a water bath. After slide-mounting they were examined under a Leica microscope DM5000B, and identified using available literature and by direct comparison with previously identified specimens deposited at MZUSP. All literature used is cited in the distribution and discussion of each species. The classification of hosts follows the worldwide checklist by Dickinson (2003).

Louse classification does not strictly follow the latest worldwide checklists (Hopkins and Clay, 1952; Price et al., 2003), especially for genera of the family Heptapsogasteridae, which is not recognized in those checklists. Regarding South American tinamou lice, we followed Carriker (1936, 1944a), except for cases of obvious synonyms based on the description of immatures instead of adults. All these genera could be identified morphologically and include DocophorocotesCarriker, 1936, TinamicolaCarriker, 1936, HypocrypturellusCarriker, 1940 (= HypocryptusCarriker, 1936nec Förster, 1868) and RhynchoturaCarriker, 1936 as valid. For most of these genera, the distinctive morphological characters can be found in Carriker (1936) and Cicchino (2011). We separated Hypocrypturellus and the monotypic genus AustrokelloggiaCarriker, 1936 based on the former having vestigial crenulations on the external posterior margin of temple of the adults. These crenulations are truly serrated in nymphs (reducing from NI to NII), whilst the margin of temple of Austrokelloggia intermediaCarriker, 1936 is completely smooth (Carriker's specimens studied at MZUSP #665).

Results

We document 88 species of chewing lice, plus 21 records at generic level, from various localities of Brazil. Seventeen further samples were of doubtful origin, so are herein considered as stragglers or contaminants and listed and commented in Appendix A. All samples were collected from 68 species of native birds, belonging to 32 families and 19 orders (see Appendix B).

Thirty-four species of chewing lice are recorded for the first time in Brazil, a further 37 species are recorded from new localities, and 23 were recorded from new host species. Additionally, precise locality information is given for six species previously only known as originating from "Brazil".

The louse-host list includes all the genera and species collected by H. Sick and deposited in MZUSP. For each species we list bibliographic citations with information regarding their global distribution in chronological order, then by country and finally, for Brazilian records, by State.

LOUSE-HOST LIST

Order Phthiraptera Haeckel, 1896

Suborder Amblycera Kellogg, 1896

Family Laemobothriidae Mjöberg, 1910

Eulaemobothrion Ewing, 1929

Eulaemobothrion opisthocomi (Cummings, 1913)

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1940).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, PA (Guimarães, 1940), PA (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 2♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6665-6670), ex Opisthocomus hoazin (Statius Müller, 1776) (MNRJ#32564, A.1694), Alto Tapajós, Alto Xinguacanga, Jacareacanga, PA, Brazil, 11.VII.1957.

Eulaemobothrion setigerum (Piaget, 1889)

Distribution: no locality (Piaget, 1889).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 3♂, 4♀, 5 nymphs (MZUSP#6575-6586), ex Phimosus infuscatus nudifrons (Spix, 1825) (MZUSP#32219, A.22), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 11.X.1946.

Laemobothrion Nitzsch, 1818

Laemobothrion glutinans Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1861

Distribution: Brazil (Nelson and Price, 1965; Brum and Rickes, 2003; Valim et al., 2005a), Guyana, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, USA, Venezuela (Nelson and Price, 1965).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (Nelson and Price, 1965), RS (Brum and Rickes, 2003), SP (Valim et al., 2005a), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6546-47), ex Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) (A.2315), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 21.VII.1952.

Laemobothrion tinnunculi (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution: Algeria, Australia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Colombia, India, Ireland, Israel, Kenya, Nicaragua, Philippines, South Africa, Sudan, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, USA, Venezuela, Vietnam (Nelson and Price, 1965), New Zealand (Pilgrim and Palma, 1982), Chile (González-Acuña et al., 2008).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6600), ex Falco femoralis Temminck, 1822 (MZUSP#32244, A.165), 4 leguas SW, Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 10.XI.1946.

Family Ricinidae Neumann, 1906

Ricinus DeGeer, 1778

Ricinus sp.

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6742), ex Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1830) (MZUSP#32459, A.292), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 23.XI.1946; 1♀ (MZUSP#6749), ex Nemosia pileata (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#30805, A.2270), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 17.V.1952; 1♀ (MZUSP#6762), ex "Thraupidae" (A.1605), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 22.VIII.1950; 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6743), ex Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831) (A.1343), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 18.VII.1949.

Family Menoponidae Mjöberg, 1910

Actornithophilus Ferris, 1916

Actornithophilus ochraceus (Nitzsch, 1818)

Distribution: Ireland (Clay, 1962), USA (Emerson, 1972), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998a), New Zealand (Pilgrim and Palma, 1982).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 3♂, 1♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6562, 6564-65), ex Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782) (MZUSP#32256, A.419), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 22.I.1947; 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6563), ex V. chilensis (A.1757), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 08.IX.1951; 1 nymph (MZUSP#6552), ex V. cayanus (Latham, 1790) (MZUSP#32259, A.484), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.II.1947.

Amyrsidea Ewing, 1927

Subgenus CracimenoponCarriker, 1950

Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) aff aburris Carriker, 1950

Distribution: Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru (Scharf and Emerson, 1984).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6651), ex Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815 (A.1550), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, VIII.1950; 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6654), ex P. superciliaris (MNRJ#31527, A.1360), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 25.VII.1949; 2♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6652-53), ex P. superciliaris (MNRJ#31527, A.1359), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 25.VII.1949.

Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) sp.

Material examined: 4♂, 4♀, 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6660-64), ex Pauxi tuberosum (Spix, 1825) (A.2182), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 25.IX.1952; 5♀ (MZUSP#6648-50), ex Pipile cujubi nattereri (Pelzeln, 1858) (MZUSP#32251, A.147), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 08.XI.1946.

Colpocephalum Nitzsch, 1818

Colpocephalum ateri Price & Beer, 1964

Distribution: Brazil, Guyana (Price and Beer, 1963, 1964).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (Price and Beer, 1963, 1964), MT (present study).

Material examined: 12♂, 26♀, 22 nymphs (MZUSP#6601-28), ex Daptrius ater Vieillot, 1816 (MNRJ#31554, A.1573), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 11.VIII.1950.

Colpocephalum maculatum Piaget, 1880

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1945; Price and Beer, 1963; Valente et al., 2001; Valim et al., 2005a), Colombia, Mexico (Price and Beer, 1963), Argentina (Price and Beer, 1963; Cicchino and Castro, 1998a), Chile (Price and Beer, 1963; Órdenes et al., 2005; González-Acuña et al., 2008).

Distribution in Brazil: PR (Guimarães, 1945), no locality (Price and Beer, 1963), RS (Valente et al., 2001), SP (Valim et al., 2005a), GO, MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6598-99), ex Caracara plancus (J. F. Miller, 1777) (A.2104), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 17.VIII.1952; 1♂ (MZUSP#6633), ex Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) (A.2297), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 20.XI.1952; 1♂, 3♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6631, 6634, 6638), ex M. chimachima (MNRJ#30513, A.2308), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 02.VII.1952; 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6630), ex M. chimachima (MNRJ#31557, A.2294), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 22.VII.1952; 3♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6629, 6632), ex M. chimachima (MNRJ#30508, A.2327), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 18.V.1952; 1♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6635-37), ex M. chimachima (MNRJ#30510, A.2325), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 16.V.1952.

Colpocephalum megalops Giebel, 1874

Distribution: Trinidad and Tobago (Price and Beer, 1963).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂ (MZUSP#6548), ex Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) (A.1743), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 04.IX.1957.

Colpocephalum mycteriae Price & Beer, 1965

Distribution: Brazil (Price and Beer, 1965).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (Price and Beer, 1965), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6587), ex Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819) (A.1774), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 10.IX.1957.

Colpocephalum sp.

Material examined: 1 nymph (MZUSP#6525), ex Spizaetus ornatus (Daudin, 1800) (MNRJ#32553, A.1368), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 29.VII.1949.

Cuculiphilus Uchida, 1926

Subgenus Cuculiphilus Uchida, 1926

Cuculiphilus (Cuculiphilus) fasciativentris Carriker, 1955

Distribution: Venezuela (Carriker, 1955), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998a), New Zealand (Palma, 1999).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6595-96), ex Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766), (MNRJ#30666, A.1990), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 07.II.1952.

Dennyus Neumann, 1906

Subgenus Dennyus Neumann, 1906

Dennyus (Dennyus) brevicapitis Carriker, 1954

Distribution: Trinidad and Tobago (Carriker, 1954).

Distribution in Brazil: RJ (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6541), ex Chaetura meridionalis Hellmayr, 1907 (MNRJ#30741-42, A.7, A.11), Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Estrada do Rio Itatiaia, Itatiaia, 1500 m, RJ, Brazil, 08.III.1953.

Dennyus (Dennyus) limbus Carriker, 1954

Distribution: Costa Rica (Carriker, 1954).

Distribution in Brazil: RJ (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6537), ex Chaetura meridionalis Hellmayr, 1907 (MNRJ#30731), Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, 08.X.1951; 1♂ (MZUSP#6536), ex C. meridionalis (MNRJ#30726), same data except, 14.X.1952; 1♀ (MZUSP#6538), ex C. meridionalis (MNRJ#30745, #30756), same data except, 03.X.1957; 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6545), ex C. meridionalis (MNRJ#30736), same data except, 21.XI.1949; 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6539-41), ex C. meridionalis (MNRJ#30741-42, A.7, A.11), Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Estrada do Rio Itatiaia, Itatiaia, 1500 m, RJ, Brazil, 08.III.1953.

Dennyus (Dennyus) malagonensis Valim, 2013

Distribution: Brazil (Valim, 2013).

Distribution in Brazil: MG (Valim, 2013), RJ (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 4♀, 7 nymphs (MZUSP#6532-35), ex Streptoprocne zonaris (Shaw, 1796) (MNRJ#30714-15), Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, 18.VII.1952.

Dennyus (Dennyus) sp.

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6544), ex Chaetura meridionalis Hellmayr, 1907 (I.736), Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, 21.XII.1952.

HeteromenoponCarriker, 1954

Subgenus HeteromenoponCarriker, 1954

Heteromenopon (Heteromenopon) anodorhynchi Price, 1969

Distribution: Brazil (Price, 1969).

Distribution in Brazil: GO (Price, 1969), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6787), ex Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (Latham, 1790) (MZUSP#32289-90, A.90-91), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 26-27.X.1946.

Heteromenopon (Heteromenopon) sincipitalis Carriker, 1954

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1954), Trindad and Tobago (Price and Beer, 1967).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6806), ex Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758) (MZUSP#32295, A.357), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 08.I.1947.

HoazineusGuimarães, 1940

Hoazineus armiferus (Kellogg, 1910)

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1940).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, PA (Guimarães, 1940), PA (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6671-72), ex Opisthocomus hoazin (Statius Müller, 1776) (MNRJ#32564, A.1694), Alto Tapajós, Alto Xinguacanga, Jacareacanga, PA, Brazil, 11.VII.1957.

Holomenopon Eichler, 1941

Holomenopon cairinae Eichler, 1943

Distribution: Brazil, Guyana, Ecuador (Price, 1971).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (Price, 1971), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6526, 6528), ex Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758) (MZUSP#32221, A.45) Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.X.1946; 1♂, 8 nymphs (MZUSP#6527, 6529-31), ex C. moschata (MZUSP#32222, A.43), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.X.1946.

Menacanthus Neumann, 1912

Menacanthus arctifasciatus (Piaget, 1885)

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1944), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998a).

Distribution in Brazil: MS (Guimarães, 1944), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 6♀, 29 nymphs (MZUSP#7065-93), ex Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (A.2227), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 24.IX.1952.

Menacanthus balfouri Waterston, 1915

Distribution: Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela (Price and Emerson, 1975).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (Price and Emerson, 1975), MT (present study).

Material examined: 5♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6708-11), ex Ramphastos cuvieri (Wagler, 1827) (A.1516), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 16.VII.1950.

Menacanthus pici (Denny, 1842)

Distribution: Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, England, Estonia, India, Korea, Morocco, Nepal, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, USA, former "Yugoslavia" (Price and Emerson, 1975), Argentina (Castro and Cicchino, 1978), Chile (González-Acuña et al., 2014).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6681), ex Melanerpes cruentatus (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#47214, A.1490), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 02.VII.1950.

Menacanthus tyranni Price, 1977

Distribution: Canada, USA, Puerto Rico, West Indies (Price, 1977), Argentina (Castro and Cicchino, 1992), Brazil (Valim et al., 2009).

Distribution in Brazil: RS (Valim et al., 2009), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6764), ex Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766) (A.2129), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 16.VII.1952; 1♀ (MZUSP#6765), ex P. sulphuratus (A.2272), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 1952.

Menacanthus sp.

Material examined: 4♀ (MZUSP#6646-47), ex Pipile cujubi nattereri (Pelzeln, 1858) (MZUSP#32251, A.147), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 08.XI.1946; 1♂ (MZUSP#6655), ex Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815 (A.1550), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 04.VIII.1950.

MicrocteniaKéler, 1939

Microctenia heterocephalus Guimarães, 1947

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1947).

Distribution in Brazil: AM (Guimarães, 1947), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6977), ex Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 (A.2150), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952.

Myrsidea Waterston, 1915

Myrsidea aleixoi Price et al., 2004

Distribution: Brazil (Price et al., 2004).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (Price et al., 2004, present study)

Material examined: 2♀ (MZUSP#6686), ex Pteroglossus beauharnaesii Wagler, 1832 (MNRJ#30578-30580, A.1189-90), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 02.V.1949.

Myrsidea ceciliae Carriker & Díaz-Ungría, 1961

Distribution: Brazil (Price et al., 2004, Venezuela (Carriker and Díaz-Ungría, 1961).).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, PA, MT, SP (Price et al., 2004), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂ (MZUSP#6688-89), ex Ramphastos culminatus Gould, 1833 (MNRJ#30589, A.1339), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 14.IV.1949; 1♀ (MZUSP#6690), ex R. culminatus (MNRJ#30581, A.1216), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 16.IV.1949; 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6687), ex R. culminatus (MNRJ#30591, A.1618), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 25.VIII.1950.

Myrsidea cristatelli Valim & Cicchino, 2015

Distribution: Brazil (Valim and Cicchino, 2015).

Distribution in Brazil: SP (Valim and Cicchino, 2015), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6723), ex Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823) (MNRJ#30643, A.2316), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 24.VII.1952; 1♂ (MZUSP#6722), ex C. cristatellus (MNRJ#30645, A.2282), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 24.VII.1952.

Myrsidea dissimilis (Kellogg, 1896)

Distribution: USA (Kellogg, 1896).

Distribution in Brazil: GO, MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6730) ex Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789) (MNRJ#31438, A.2291), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 29.V.1952; 2♀ (MZUSP#6731-32) ex P. chalybea (MNRJ#31436, A.1544), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 04.VIII.1950; 1♀ (MZUSP#6735) ex Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#31400, A.2314), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 07.VII.1952.

Myrsidea extranea (Carriker, 1903)

Distribution: Colombia, Costa Rica (Carriker and Díaz-Ungría, 1961), Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Panama, Peru (Price et al., 2004).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, MT (Price et al., 2004), MT (present study).

Material examined: 6♂, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6699-6705), ex Ramphastos cuvieri (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#30592, A.1253), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 10.VI.1949; 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6706), ex R. cuvieri (A.1516), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 16.VII.1950.

Myrsidea lightae Price et al., 2008

Distribution: Costa Rica, Venezuela, Panama (Price et al., 2008), Brazil (Enout et al., 2012).

Distribution in Brazil: TO (Enout et al., 2012), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6751-52), ex Saltator sp. (A.2319), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 09.VIII.1952.

Myrsidea pseudofalax Valim & Cicchino, 2015

Distribution: Argentina (Valim and Cicchino, 2015).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6715-16), ex Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) (MNRJ#30640, A.1609), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 22.VIII.1950.

Myrsidea ramphoceli Price & Dalgleish, 2006

Distribution: Peru, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago (Price and Dalgleish, 2006), Brazil (Sychra et al., 2009; Enout et al., 2012).

Distribution in Brazil: MS (Sychra et al., 2009), TO (Enout et al., 2012), GO (present study).

Material examined: 3♂ (MZUSP#6750), ex Ramphocelus carbo (Pallas, 1764) (MNRJ#31337, A.2307), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 01.VII.1952.

Myrsidea rufi Price & Dalgleish, 2006

Distribution: Trinidad and Tobago (Price and Dalgleish, 2006).

Distribution in Brazil: GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6753-55), ex Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#30867, A.2322), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 1952.

Myrsidea seminuda Eichler, 1951

Distribution: Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998a), Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago (Price and Dalgleish, 2006), Brazil (Sychra et al., 2009; Enout et al., 2012).

Distribution in Brazil: MS (Sychra et al., 2009), TO (Enout et al., 2012), GO, RJ (present study).

Material examined: 2♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6757, 6761), ex Thraupis palmarum (Wied, 1821) (A.2271), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 25.VI.1952; 4♀, 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6758-60), ex T. palmarum (497), Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil, 16.IX.1944.

Myrsidea witti Price et al., 2004

Distribution: Brazil (Price et al., 2004).

Distribution in Brazil: AP, PA (Price et al., 2004), GO, MT (present study).

Material examined: 8♀ (MZUSP#6692-94), ex Ramphastos toco Müller, 1776 (A.2292), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 26.V.1952; 2♂, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6691, 6695), ex R. toco albogularis (MZUSP#32382, A.319), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 29.XII.1946.

Myrsidea sp. 1

Material examined: 2♂, 2♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6743-48), ex Sclerurus scansor (Ménétriès, 1835) (501), Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil, 21.IX.1944.

Myrsidea sp. 2

Material examined 1♂ (MZUSP#6714), ex Piranga flava (Vieillot, 1822) (MNRJ#31340, A.2293), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 31.V.1952.

Myrsidea sp. 3

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6728), ex Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) (A.2304), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 23.V.1952.

Myrsidea sp. 4

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6729), ex Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766) (A.2304), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 23.V.1952.

OsborniellaThompson, 1948

Osborniella crotophagae (Stafford, 1943)

Distribution: Venezuela (Stafford, 1943), Jamaica (Thompson, 1948), Colombia (Carriker, 1964), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998a), Brazil (Oniki, 1999), Ecuador (Palma and Peck, 2013).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (Oniki, 1999), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1 nymph (MZUSP#6597), ex Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758, (A.2318), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 06.VII.1952.

Osborniella guiraensis (Kellogg, 1906)

Distribution: Argentina (Kellogg, 1906; Palma, 1973; Cicchino and Castro, 1998a), Brazil (Valim et al., 2009; Marietto-Gonçalves et al., 2012).

Distribution in Brazil: RS (Valim et al., 2009), SP (Marietto-Gonçalves et al., 2012), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6592), ex Guira guira (J.F. Gmelin, 1788) (A.2299), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 01.VII.1952; 2♂, 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6591, 6593-94), ex G. guira (A.2068), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 1952.

PsittacobrosusCarriker, 1954

Psittacobrosus hyacinthini Price & Beer, 1968

Distribution: Brazil (Price and Beer, 1968).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (Price and Beer, 1968), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 5♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6779-86), ex Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (Latham, 1790) (A.2002), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 11.II.1952.

Psittacobrosus kelloggi Carriker, 1954

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia (Carriker, 1954), Trinidad and Tobago (Price and Beer, 1968).

Distribution in Brazil: PA (Carriker, 1954), AM, MT, MS, GO, SP (Price and Beer, 1968), MT (present study).

Material examined: 5♂, 7♀, 12 nymphs (MZUSP#6790-93, 6798-6801, 6803-05), ex Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758) (MZUSP#32295, A.357), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 08.I.1947; 8♂, 2♀, 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6788-89, 6794-97, 6802), ex A. ararauna (MZUSP#32296, A.196), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.XI.1946.

RamphasticolaCarriker, 1949

Ramphasticola hirsuta Carriker, 1949

Distribution: Colombia, Peru (Carriker, 1949), Brazil (Hellental et al., 2005).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, PA, MT (Hellental et al., 2005), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6707), ex Ramphastos cuvieri (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#30592, A.1253), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 10.VI.1949.

Suborder Ischnocera Kellogg, 1896

Family Heptapsogasteridae Carriker, 1936

DocophorocotesCarriker, 1936

Docophorocotes sexsetosus (Piaget, 1885)

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 5♀, 4 nymphs (MZUSP#7040-47, 7140), ex Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (A.2227), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 24.IX.1952.

HeptagoniodesCarriker, 1936

Heptagoniodes agonus (Nitzsch [In Giebel], 1874)

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1942a).

Distribution in Brazil: PA (Guimarães, 1942a), MT (present study).

Material examined: 3♂, 4♀, 8 nymphs (MZUSP#6978-79, 6981-82, 6984, 6986-87), ex Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 (A.2150), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952; 1♂, 1♀, 4 nymphs (MZUSP#6980, 6983, 6985, 6988), ex T. tao (MNRJ#32659, A.1443), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952.

HeptarthrogasterCarriker, 1936

Heptarthrogaster grandis Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936), Brazil (Guimarães and Lane, 1937; Kéler, 1939; Valim and Silveira, 2014), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: SP (Guimarães and Lane, 1937), SC (Kéler, 1939), AL, ES, MG (Valim and Silveira, 2014), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6975), ex Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 (A.2150), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952.

Heptapsogaster Carriker, 1939

Heptapsogaster mandibularis Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Brazil (Carriker, 1936; Kéler, 1939; Valim et al., 2005b), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MG (Carriker, 1936), SC (Kéler, 1939), RJ (Valim et al., 2005b), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♀ (MZUSP#6948), ex Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32582, A.1398), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 08.VIII.1948.

Heptapsogaster noctivagi Clay, 1937

Distribution: Brazil, Guyana (Clay, 1937).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (Clay, 1937), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6916), ex Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32641, A.1179), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.V.1949.

Heptapsogaster temporalis Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6932), ex Crypturellus tataupa tataupa (Temminck, 1815) (MZUSP#32210, A.435), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.I.1947.

Heptapsogaster yapurae Carriker, 1944

Distribution: Peru (Carriker, 1944a).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 3♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6929-31), ex Crypturellus tataupa tataupa (Temminck, 1815) (MZUSP#32210, A.435), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.I.1947.

Heptapsogaster sp.

Material examined: 1♂, 2♀ (MZUSP#6894-95), ex Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.XII.1948.

HypocrypturellusCarriker, 1940

Hypocrypturellus genitalis (Carriker, 1936)

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Carriker, 1936; Guimarães, 1953), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MG, PA (Carriker, 1936), ES, MG, SC, SP (Guimarães, 1953), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀, 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6933-35), ex Crypturellus tataupa tataupa (Temminck, 1815) (MZUSP#32210, A.435), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.I.1947.

Hypocrypturellus mendax Guimarães & Hopkins, 1949

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães and Hopkins, 1949), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MS, PA, SP (Guimarães and Hopkins, 1949), MT (present study).

Material examined: 38♂, 30♀, 14 nymphs (MZUSP#6872-93), ex Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.VII.1948.

Hypocrypturellus strigulosus Guimarães, 1953

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1953).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, PA (Guimarães, 1953), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6915), ex Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32641, A.1179), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.V.1949.

Hypocrypturellus undulatus (Carriker, 1936)

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936), Brazil (Guimarães, 1953).

Distribution in Brazil: GO, MS, MT, SP (Guimarães, 1953), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 2♀ (MZUSP#6949), ex Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32582, A.1398), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 08.VIII.1948.

KelloggiaCarriker, 1903

Kelloggia caquetae (Carriker, 1962)

Distribution: Colombia (Carriker, 1962).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6905), ex Crypturellus soui albigularis (Brabourne and Chubb, 1914) (MZUSP#32204, A.391), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.I.1947.

Kelloggia sp.

Material examined: 6♂, 2♀ (MZUSP#6964-67), ex Tinamus guttatus Pelzln, 1863 (MNRJ#32650, A.1555), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 1950.

MegapeostusCarriker, 1936

Megapeostus asymmetricus Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6939), ex Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32582, A.1398), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 08.VIII.1948; 2♀, 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6938, 6940), ex C. undulatus (MNRJ#32585, A.1613), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 23.VIII.1950; 2♀ (MZUSP#6937), ex C. undulatus (A.2022), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 16.II.1952; 1♀ (MZUSP#6954), ex C. u. vermiculatus (Temminck, 1825) (MZUSP#32209, A.436), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.I.1947.

Megapeostus sp.

Material examined: 2♂, 3♀ (MZUSP#6901-03), ex Crypturellus soui albigularis (Brabourne and Chubb, 1914) (MZUSP#32204, A.391), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.I.1947.

OrnicholaxCarriker, 1903

Ornicholax alienus (Giebel, 1874)

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães and Lane, 1937; Kéler, 1938a; Valim and Silveira, 2014), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: SP (Guimarães and Lane, 1937), SC (Kéler, 1938a); AL, ES, MG (Valim and Silveira, 2014), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 7♀ (MZUSP#6969-6972), ex Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 (A.2150), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952; 3♀ (MZUSP#6973-74), ex T. tao (MNRJ#32659, A.1443), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952.

Ornicholax olfersi Guimarães, 1942

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1942b).

Distribution in Brazil: AM (Guimarães, 1942b), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 5♀ (MZUSP#6960-63), ex Tinamus guttatus Pelzln, 1863 (MNRJ#32650, A.1555), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 1950.

Pectenosoma Ewing, 1929

Pectenosoma angusta Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♀ (MZUSP#6910), ex Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32641, A.1179), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.V.1949.

Pectenosoma subparva Guimarães & Hopkins, 1949

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães and Hopkins, 1949).

Distribution in Brazil: GO, MS, SP (Guimarães and Hopkins, 1949), MT (present study).

Material examined: 13♂, 15♀ (MZUSP#6860-68), ex Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.VII.1948.

Pectenosoma yapurae Carriker, 1944

Distribution: Bolivia, Peru (Carriker, 1944a), Brazil (Guimarães, 1950).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, GO, MS, MT, SP (Guimarães, 1950), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 3♀ (MZUSP#6941-42, 6944), ex Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32582, A.1398), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 08.VIII.1948; 1♂ (MZUSP#6943), ex C. undulatus (MNRJ#32585, A.1613), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 23.VIII.1950; 1♀ (MZUSP#6956), ex C. u. vermiculatus (Temminck, 1825) (MZUSP#32209, A.436), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.I.1947; 1♀ (MZUSP#6955), ex C. u. vermiculatus (MZUSP#32205, A.86), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 25.X.1946; 1♂ (MZUSP#6928), ex C. tataupa tataupa (Temminck, 1815) (MZUSP#32210, A.435), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, v27.I.1947; 3♀ (MZUSP#6911-12), ex C. strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32639-32646, A.1577-78), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 13.VIII.1950.

Rhopaloceras Taschenberg, 1882

Rhopaloceras rudimentarius Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Venezuela (Carriker, 1936).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6904), ex Crypturellus soui albigularis (Brabourne and Chubb, 1914) (MZUSP#32204, A.391), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.I.1947.

Rhopaloceras sp.

Material examined: 2♂, 4♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6950-53), ex Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32582, A.1398), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 08.VIII.1948; 1 nymph (MZUSP#6959), ex C. u. vermiculatus (MZUSP#32205, A.86), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 25.X.1946; 1 nymph (MZUSP#6869), ex C. parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.VII.1948; 1♀ (MZUSP#6907), ex C. soui (Hermann, 1783) (MNRJ#32599, A.1998), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 09.II.1952; 1♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6913-14), ex C. strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32641, A.1179), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.V.1949; 3♂, 1♀, 3 nymphs (MZUSP#6993-95, 6997, 7000-02), ex Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 (MNRJ#32659, A.1443), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952; 3♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6989-91, 6998), ex T. tao (MNRJ#32658, A.1266), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, VI.1949; 1♂, 2♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6992, 6996, 6999, 7003-04), ex T. tao (A.2195), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 16.IX.1952.

RhynchoturaCarriker, 1936

Rhynchotura sexpunctata (Piaget, 1885)

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 9♂, 7♀, 6 nymphs (MZUSP#7048-64, 7041-42), ex Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (A.2227), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 24.IX.1952.

Strongylocotes Taschenberg, 1882

Strongylocotes albigularis Guimarães & Lane, 1937

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães and Lane, 1937; Carriker, 1953).

Distribution in Brazil: GO (Guimarães and Lane, 1937), ES (Carriker, 1953), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6906), ex Crypturellus soui albigularis (Brabourne and Chubb, 1914) (MZUSP#32204, A.391), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.I.1947.

Strongylocotes limai Guimarães, 1936

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1936).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (Guimarães, 1936, present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6917, 6919), ex Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32639-32646, A.1577-78), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 13.VIII.1950; 1♀ (MZUSP#6918), ex C. strigulosus (MNRJ#32640, A.2140), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 03.IX.1952.

Strongylocotes lipogonus (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866)

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 22♂, 17♀, 17 nymphs (MZUSP#7005-39), ex Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (A.2227), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 24.IX.1952.

Strongylocotes orbicularis (Carriker, 1936)

Distribution: Brazil (Carriker, 1936; Guimarães and Hopkins, 1949).

Distribution in Brazil: PA (Carriker, 1936), GO, MS, SP (Guimarães and Hopkins, 1949), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6858), ex Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#32628, A.2138), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 02.IX.1952; 4♂, 5♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6853-57, 6859), ex C. parvirostris (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.VII.1948.

Strongylocotes taoi Carriker, 1944

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1948), Colombia (Carriker, 1944a).

Distribution in Brazil: PA (Guimarães, 1948), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6976), ex Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 (A.2150), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952.

Strongylocotes variegatus Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Brazil (Valim and Silveira, 2014), Guyana, Peru (Carriker, 1936).

Distribution in Brazil: AL (Valim and Silveira, 2014), MT (present study).

Material examined: 2♀ (MZUSP#6946), ex Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32582, A.1398), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 08.VIII.1948; 3♀ (MZUSP#6945, 6947), ex C. undulatus (A.2022), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 16.II.1952; 1♀ (MZUSP#6957), ex C. u. vermiculatus (Temminck, 1825) (MZUSP#32209, A.436), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.I.1947; 1 nymph (MZUSP#6958), ex C. u. vermiculatus (MZUSP#32205, A.86), same locality, except 25.X.1946; 1♂, 2♀, 4 nymphs (MZUSP#6921-27), ex C. tataupa tataupa (Temminck, 1815) (MZUSP#32210, A.435), same locality, except 27.I.1947.

TinamicolaCarriker, 1936

Tinamicola latithorax Carriker, 1936

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 3♂, 6♀, 32 nymphs (MZUSP#7094-7118, 7140, 7142), ex Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (A.2227), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 24.IX.1952.

Tinamicola rotundata (Rudow, 1869)

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 8♂, 7♀, 20 nymphs (MZUSP#7119-39, 7141), ex Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (A.2227), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 24.IX.1952.

Family Philopteridae Burmeister, 1838

Acutifrons Guimarães, 1942

Acutifrons vieirai Guimarães, 1942

Distribution: Brazil (Guimarães, 1942c, 1945).

Distribution in Brazil: MS, SP (Guimarães, 1942c), PR (Guimarães, 1945), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6639), ex Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816) (MNRJ#30513, A.2308), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 02.VII.1952.

Austrophilopterus Ewing, 1929

Austrophilopterus cancellosus (Carriker, 1903)

Distribution: Trinidad and Tobago (Carriker, 1950), Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru (Carriker, 1950; Price and Weckstein, 2005), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b), Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Panama, Venezuela (Price and Weckstein, 2005).

Distribution in Brazil: AM, AP, MA, MT, PA, RR, SC, SP (Price and Weckstein, 2005), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6696-98), ex Ramphastos toco Muller, 1776 (MNRJ#30594, A.2005), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 12.II.1952; 5 nymphs (MZUSP#6712-13), ex Ramphastos cuvieri (Wagler, 1827) (A.1516), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 16.VII.1950.

Bizarrifrons Eichler, 1938

Bizarrifrons picturatus Carriker & Díaz-Ungría, 1961

Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela (Carriker and Díaz-Ungría, 1961), Brazil (Valim and Palma, 2012).

Distribution in Brazil: AM (Valim and Palma, 2012), GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 3♀ (MZUSP#6737-40), ex Cacicus cela (Linnaeus, 1758) (A.2281), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 1952.

Brueelia Kéler, 1936

Brueelia nitzschi Kéler, 1938b

Distribution: Paraguay (Kéler, 1938b), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b), Brazil (Valim et al., 2005a).

Distribution in Brazil: SP (Valim et al., 2005a), MT, GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6725), ex C. cristatellus (Temminck, 1823) (A.2057), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 29.III.1952; 4 nymphs (MZUSP#6726-27), ex C. cristatellus (MNRJ#30645, A.2282), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 30.V.1952.

Brueelia keleri Carriker, 1963

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1963), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6721), ex Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) (MNRJ#30640, A.1609), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 22.VIII.1950.

Brueelia straminea (Denny, 1842)

Distribution: England, Kenya, Mexico, USA (Dalgleish, 1971), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6682), ex Melanerpes cruentatus (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#47214, A.1490), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 02.VII.1950.

Craspedorrhynchus Kéler, 1938

Craspedorrhynchus sp.

Material examined: 10♂, 7♀, 13 nymphs (MZUSP#6512-24), ex Spizaetus ornatus (Daudin, 1800) (MNRJ#32553, A.1368), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 29.VII.1949.

Degeeriella Neumann, 1906

Degeeriella sp.

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6510-11), ex Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors, 1825 (MZUSP#32237, A.270), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 17.XII.1946.

Falcolipeurus Bedford, 1931

Falcolipeurus ternatus (Burmeister, 1838)

Distribution: Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6549), ex Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758) (A.2315), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 21.VII.1952.

MayriphilopterusMey, 2004

Mayriphilopterus nystalicus Mey, 2004

Distribution: Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b, as "Philopterus sp.n. ex Nystalus maculatus striatipectus"), Paraguay, Brazil (Mey, 2004; Valim and Linardi, 2007).

Distribution in Brazil: MG (Mey, 2004), BA, DF, MT, SC (Valim and Linardi, 2007), GO (present study).

Material examined: 2♂ (MZUSP#6641), ex Nystalus chacuru (Vieillot, 1816) (A.2116), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 21.VI.1952; 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6642-43), ex N. maculatus (Gmelin, 1788) (A.2114), Rio Araguaia. Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 14.VI.1952.

Mulcticola Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938

Mulcticola sicki Valim & Kuabara, 2015

Distribution: Brazil (Valim and Kuabara, 2015)

Distribution in Brazil: MT, PA (Valim and Kuabara, 2015), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 2♀ (MZUSP#6278-79, 6285), ex Chordeiles rupestris (Spix, 1825) (MNRJ#35352, A.1380), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 03.VIII.1949; 1♀ (MZUSP#6280), ex C. rupestris (MN 35351-52, A.1379), Alto Xingu, Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 03.VIII.1949.

Oxylipeurus Mjöberg, 1910

Oxylipeurus rhynchoti (Carriker, 1936)

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1936, 1944b).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 4♀, 5 nymphs (MZUSP#6656-58), ex Pauxi tuberosum (Spix, 1825) (A.2182), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 12.IX.1952.

Paragoniocotes Cummings, 1916

Paragoniocotes mirabilis (Carriker, 1940)

Distribution: Bolivia (Carriker, 1940), Brazil (Guimarães, 1947).

Distribution in Brazil: GO, MT, SP (Guimarães, 1947), MT (present study).

Material examined: 4♂, 10♀ (MZUSP#6807-13), ex Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758) (A.2142), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 03.IX.1952.

Pectinopygus Mjöberg, 1910

Pectinopygus gyroceras (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866)

Distribution: no locality (Giebel, 1866).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 5♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6673-76), ex Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) (A.1801), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 1951.

Penenirmus Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938

Penenirmus auritus (Scopoli, 1763)

Distribution: Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru (Dalgleish, 1972), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b), Brazil (Oniki, 1999; Johnson et al., 2001), Chile (González-Acuña et al., 2014).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (Oniki, 1999, present study), PA (Johnson et al., 2001), ES (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6680), ex Colaptes campestris (Vieillot, 1818) (MNRJ#26923, 839), Santa Teresa, 760m, ES, Brazil, 08.I.1940; 1♂, 1♀, 4 nymphs (MZUSP#6683-85), ex Melanerpes cruentatus (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#47214, A.1490), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 02.VII.1950.

Philopterus Nitzsch, 1818

Philopterus sp.

Material examined: 1♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6718-20), ex Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) (MNRJ#30640, A.1609), Alto Tapajós, Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 22.VIII.1950; 1♀ (MZUSP#6724), ex C. cristatellus (Temminck, 1823) (MNRJ#30645, A.2282), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 30.V.1952; 1♂ (MZUSP#6734), ex Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789) (MNRJ#31434, A.2278), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 01.VI.1952; 1♂ (MZUSP#6733), ex P. chalybea (MNRJ#31436, A.1544), Alto Tapajós, Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 04.VIII.1950; 1♀ (MZUSP#6736), ex Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#31437, A.2313), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 1952.

Picicola Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938

Picicola serrafreirei Valim & Linardi, 2006

Distribution: Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b, as "Picicola sp.n. ex Nystalus chacuru"), Bolivia (Price and Weckstein, 2006), Brazil (Valim and Linardi, 2006).

Distribution in Brazil: DF (Valim and Linardi, 2006), GO (present study).

Material examined: 2♂ (MZUSP#6644), ex Nystalus maculatus (Gmelin, 1788) (A.2114), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 14.VI.1952.

Picicola sp.

Material examined: 8 nymphs (MZUSP#6678-79), ex Celeus flavescens (Gmelin, 1788) (A.2110), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, MT, Brazil, 23.VII.1952; 1♀ (MZUSP#6756), ex Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert, 1783) (MNRJ#30868, A.2277), Alto Xingu, Jacaré, GO, Brazil, 24.VII.1952.

PseudolipeurusCarriker, 1936

Pseudolipeurus longipes (Piaget, 1880)

Distribution: Brazil (Pessôa and Guimarães, 1935), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: ES, GO, MG, SP (Pessôa and Guimarães, 1935), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♀, 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6870-71), ex Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827) (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.VII.1948; 1 nymph (MZUSP#6936), ex C. tataupa tataupa (Temminck, 1815) (MZUSP#32210, A.435), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 27.I.1947.

Pseudolipeurus sp.

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6909), ex Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32639-32646, A.1577-78), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 14.VIII.1950; 3♀ (MZUSP#6968), ex Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815 (A.2150), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 05.IX.1952.

PseudophilopterusCarriker, 1936

Pseudophilopterus sp.

Material examined: 2♀ (MZUSP#6920), ex Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815) (MNRJ#32639-32646, A.1577-78), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 13.VIII.1950.

Quadraceps Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1939

Quadraceps elongatus (Piaget, 1885)

Distribution: Sudan (Timmermann, 1952), Brazil (Valim et al., 2009).

Distribution in Brazil: RS (Valim et al., 2009), MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 4♀, 1 nymph (MZUSP#6566-69), ex Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 (MNRJ#30601, A.1369), Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 29.VII.1949.

Quadraceps hasei Timmermann, 1954

Distribution: Brazil, Peru (Timmermann, 1954).

Distribution in Brazil: MS (Timmermann, 1954), MT, GO (present study).

Material examined: 4♂, 5♀ (MZUSP#6554-56, 6559-61), ex Vanellus cayanus (Latham, 1790) (MZUSP#32259, A.484), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 15.II.1947; 2♂ (MZUSP#6557-58), ex V. cayanus (MNRJ#30712, A.2296), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 08.VII.1952.

Quadraceps macrocephalus (Waterston, 1914)

Distribution: Kenya, Uganda, South Africa (Timmermann, 1953), Australia (Green and Palma, 1991; Palma and Barker, 1996), Argentina (Cicchino and Castro, 1998b).

Distribution in Brazil: no locality (present study).

Material examined: 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6550), ex Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818 (A.2306), no locality, 24.VII.1952.

Quadraceps ravus (Kellogg, 1899)

Distribution: Panama (Kellogg, 1899), Russia (Blagoveshtchensky, 1948), UK (British Isles), Costa Rica, Liberia, Sudan, Uganda, USA, Nepal, Philippines (Hopkins and Timmermann, 1954).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 3♀ (MZUSP#6571-72), ex Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766) (MNRJ#35366, A.1755), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 07.IX.1957.

Saemundssonia Timmermann, 1936

Subgenus Saemundssonia Timmermann, 1936

Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) anisorhamphos Timmermann, 1951

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Timmermann, 1951).

Distribution in Brazil: MT (present study).

Material examined: 1♂ (MZUSP#6570), ex Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 (MNRJ#30601, A.1369), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 29.VII.1949.

Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) keleri Timmermann, 1955

Distribution: Guyana (Timmermann, 1955).

Distribution in Brazil: GO (present study).

Material examined: 2♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6573-74), ex Phaetusa simplex (J.F. Gmelin, 1789) (A.2295), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 24.VII.1952.

Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) sp.

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6551), ex Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818 (A.2306), no locality, 24.VII.1952.

Trogoninirmus Eichler, 1944

Trogoninirmus sp.

Material examined: 2 nymphs (MZUSP#6852), ex Trogon curucui Linnaeus, 1766 (MNRJ#30935, A.2329)¸ Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 1952.

TyranniphilopterusMey, 2004

Tyranniphilopterus bruneri (Carriker, 1903)

Distribution: Costa Rica (Carriker, 1903; Sychra et al., 2010).

Distribution in Brazil: GO (present study).

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6741), ex Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1823) (MNRJ#30285, A.2287), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 10.VI.1952.

Tyranniphilopterus sp.

Material examined: 1♀ (MZUSP#6766), ex Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819 (A.1584), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 14.VIII.1950; 3♂, 20♀, 4 nymphs (MZUSP#6769-78), ex Knipolegus poecilocercus (Pelzeln, 1868) (MNRJ#30573, A.1121)¸ Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 02.XI.1948.

Discussion

This study is the largest of its kind so far published for Brazil in terms of the number of samples and host species examined and new country and locality records made. Most of the previously published records for Brazil are restricted to specific places and with far less material examined (e.g., Guimarães, 1944, 1945; Oniki, 1990, 1999; Roda and Farias, 1999; Brum et al., 2005; Valim et al., 2005a, 2009).

Host records and associations were compared primarily with data in Price et al. (2003). Based on these data, 23 new host records were found: Eulaemobothrion setigerum on Phimosus infuscatus nudrifrons (see Piaget, 1889), Actornitophilus ochraceus on Vanellus chilensis and V. cayanus (see Clay, 1962; Emerson, 1972; Cicchino and Castro, 1998a), Amyrsidea (C.) aburris on Penelope superciliaris (see Scharf and Emerson, 1984), Colpocephalum mycteriae on Jabiru mycteria (see Price and Beer, 1965), Dennyus brevicapitis and D. limbus on Chaetura meridionalis (see Carriker, 1954), Dennyus malagonensis on Streptoprocne zonaris (see Valim, 2013), Microctenia heterocephalus on Tinamus tao (see Guimarães, 1947), Myrsidea dissimilis on Tachycineta albiventer (see Kellogg, 1896), Heptapsogaster mandibularis on Crypturellus undulatus (see Carriker, 1936; Kéler, 1939; Cicchino and Castro, 1998b; Valim et al., 2005b), Heptapsogaster temporalis on Crypturellus tataupa tataupa (see Carriker, 1936), Heptapsogaster yapurae on Crypturellus tataupa tataupa (see Carriker, 1944a), Kelloggia caquetae on Crypturellus soui albigularis (see Carriker, 1962), Megapeostus asymmetricus on Crypturellus undulatus vermiculatus (see Carriker, 1936), Ornicholax olfersi on Tinamus guttatus (see Guimarães, 1942b), Pectenosoma yapurae on Crypturellus undulatus vermiculatus, C. tataupa tataupa and C. strigulosus (see Carriker, 1944a; Guimarães, 1950), Rhopaloceras rudimentarius on Crypturellus soui albigularis (see Carriker, 1936), Strongylocotes limai on Crypturellus strigulosus (see Guimarães, 1936) and Strongylocotes variegatus on Crypturellus undulatus, C. u. vermiculatus and C. tataupa tataupa (see Carriker, 1936; Valim and Silveira, 2014).

Six species that were previously known as from "Brazil", but without specific locality data, are herein reported from the State of Mato Grosso. They are: Colpocephalum ateri, C. mycteriae, Psittacobrosus hyacinthinus, Holomenopon cairinae, Menacanthus balfouri, and Heptapsogaster noctivagi (see Price and Beer, 1964, 1965, 1968; Price, 1971; Price and Emerson, 1975; and Clay, 1937, respectively).

Some samples were identified to the genus level only, for various reasons. An absence of adequate material for comparison and detailed literature were the reasons for Ricinus sp., Menacanthus sp., Heptapsogaster sp., Kelloggia sp., Megapeostus sp.; Rhopaloceras sp.; Craspedorrhynchus sp.; Degeeriella sp.; Philopterus sp.; Tyranniphilopterus sp., Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) sp. and Dennyus (Dennyus) sp. Samples of Colpocephalum sp., Trogoninirmus sp. and Picicola sp. included only nymphs, whilst only one sex, lacking diagnostic characters, was collected of Pseudolipeurus sp., Pseudophilopterus sp. and Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) sp.

The only other faunal survey of chewing lice previously undertaken from the same region of Brazil, predominantly sampled by H. Sick in the State of Mato Grosso, was published by Oniki (1999). She identified 15 species and a further 12 genera from 38 host species of 19 families. In the same State, we found 65 species of chewing lice, plus a further 15 records at generic level from 14 bird species of 20 families. Although there is an overlap of 14 host species between these two studies, only three species of chewing lice are recorded in both: Osborniella crotophagae (Menoponidae) from the smooth-billed ani (Cuculidae), Hypocrypturellus mendax (Heptapsogasteridae) from the small-billed tinamou (Tinamidae), and Penenirmus auritus (Philopteridae) from the campo flicker and the yellow-tufted woodpecker (Picidae) (Oniki, 1999). However, the comparison between these studies is based solely from the literature and, therefore, differences in methodologies make difficult a truly accurate comparison.

The present inventory provides a fundamental basis for future faunal studies in these regions, especially considering the virtually pristine nature of the localities at the time of collection. Therefore, it provides a good opportunity to compare against modern samples from the same region, and to investigate the effects of human development on avian chewing lice diversity and abundance.

Acknowledgements

We thank Marcos A. Raposo and Guilherme Brito (Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and Luís F. Silveira and Vitor Q. Piacentini (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil) for permission to access the host vouchers held in their collections. We also thank Alexandre L.P. Aleixo and Maria de Fátima Cunha Lima (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi) for their efforts to find some of the vouchers in their institution. We are greatly indebted to Luiz P. Gonzaga (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) for his hard work confirming all original data contained on H. Sick's field book. Jeremy K. Dickens (South Africa) reviewed the English text. We are grateful to Ricardo L. Palma (Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, New Zealand) for his thorough review of the manuscript. This study was supported by the FAPESP - São Paulo Research Foundation (to MPV: 2011/11420-5 and 2012/06951-4; KMDK: 2013/08685-2 and 2015/07135-4).

Appendix A

A.1List of stragglers and contaminants

We kept lice regarded as stragglers and/or contaminants because, even if the host information is incorrect, they are still interesting records for Brazil. A straggler is defined as a louse found occasionally on a host species but which do not appear to be regularly parasitic on that host, even if originating from field collection. A contaminant is a specimen with a host record due to human error, i.e. careless handing, placing two birds simultaneously in the same bag or one after another without first removing all parasites (Pilgrim and Palma, 1982). Is important to note that precautions against contaminations were not present in H. Sick's collection routine, and standardization for the collection of quantitative data were also lacking. This resulted in a massive number of contaminants (see below).

    •. Laemobothrion sp. (Laemobothriidae), 1 nymph (MZUSP#6908) ex Crypturellus strigulosus (MNRJ#32639-32646, A.1577-78), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 14.VIII.1950.

    •. Remarks: No species of the genus Laemobothrion is found on Tinamiformes (Nelson and Price, 1965; Price et al., 2003).

    •. Ciconiphilus decimfasciatus (Menoponidae), 23♂, 26♀, 53 nymphs (MZUSP#6815-51) ex Trogon viridis (MNRJ#30973, A.1972), Pindaiba, MT, Brazil, 1952; 1♀ (MZUSP#6900) ex Crypturellus parvirostris (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.VII.1948.

    •. Remarks: Ciconiphilus decimfasciatus is found on 32 species of Ardeidae (Ciconiiformes) (Price et al., 2003). No samples from Ardeidae were sent for identification by H. Sick. Nevertheless, regardless of its true host, this is a new locality record for this species which, in Brazil, was previously only found in SP and RS (Albano et al., 2005; Marietto-Gonçalves et al., 2012).

    •. Colpocephalum maculatum (Menoponidae), 2♂ (MZUSP#6677) ex Picumnus albosquamatus guttifer (MNRJ#44525, A.2317), Rio Araguaia (lado esquerdo), Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 19.VII.1952.

    •. Remarks: This species is typically parasitic on falconids, but these 2 males are from the same locality where abundant records were made from their regular host species (M. chimachima and C. plancus) (see text above).

    •. Colpocephalum sp. (Menoponidae), 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6898-99) ex Crypturellus parvirostris (MNRJ#32629, A.1160), Baixo Kuluene, Alto Xingu, Jacaré, MT, Brazil, 06.VII.1948. 1♂ (MZUSP#6768) ex Xolmis cinerea (A.2326), Rio das Mortes, Chavantina, MT, Brazil, 16.V.1952. 2♂ (MZUSP#6897) ex Crypturellus parvirostris (MNRJ#32524, A.2312), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 19.VII.1952.

    •. Remarks. Species of the genus Colpocephalum are not known to occur on either Tinamiformes or Passeriformes (Tyrannidae) (Price et al., 2003).

    •. Myrsidea sp. (Menoponidae), 2♀ (MZUSP 6553) ex Vanellus cayanus (MNRJ#30711, A.2280), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 25.V.1952. 1♀ (MZUSP#6717) ex Cyanocorax chrysops (MNRJ#30640, A.1609), Alto Tapajós, C. Teles Pires, MT, Brazil, 22.VIII.1950.

    •. Remarks: There are no known species of Myrsidea found on the Charadriiformes (Price et al., 2003). Also, the single female from the plush-crested jay is morphologically unlike any Myrsidea species known from New World Corvids (Valim and Cicchino, 2015).

    •. Osborniella crotophagae (Menoponidae), 1♂, 1♀ (MZUSP#6896) ex Crypturellus parvirostris (MNRJ#32618, A.2328), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 06.VIII.1952. 1♂ (MZUSP#6588) ex Columbina talpacoti (MNRJ#30494, A.2289), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 23.V.1952. 1♀ (MZUSP#6767) ex Casiornis rufa (MNRJ#30443, A.2283), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 1952.

    •. Remarks: This louse is a common parasite of the smooth-billed ani Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes, Cuculidae) (Price et al., 2003). It is consistently a contaminant in H. Sick's samples, but only represented by a single nymph on its regular host (see text above).

    •. Psittacobrosus kelloggi (Menoponidae), 1♀ (MZUSP#6645) ex Galbula ruficauda rufoviridis (A.2300), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 24.VII.1952.

    •. Remarks: Although we examined a single specimen of Ara ararauna, the most common host for this species (see below), it was collected at least six years earlier, in 1946. We suggest this to be a case of post-collection contamination.

    •. Heptapsogaster sp. (Heptapsogasteridae), 1♀ (MZUSP#6590) ex Patagioenas speciosa (MZUSP#32268, A.1), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 16.IX.1946.

    •. Remarks: Species of the genus Heptapsogaster have not been found on Columbiformes (Price et al., 2003).

    •. Megapeostus asymmetricus (Heptapsogasteridae), 1♂ (MZUSP#6589) ex Patagioenas speciosa (MZUSP#32268, A.1), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 16.IX.1946.

    •. Remarks: Species of the genus Megapeostus are not found on Columbiformes (Price et al., 2003). Megapeostus asymmetricus was the most commonly recorded species in this study (see text above).

    •. Strongylocotes sp. (Heptapsogasteridae), 1♀ (MZUSP#6659) ex Pauxi tuberosum (A.2182), Garapu, MT, Brazil, 12.IX.1952.

    •. Remarks. Species of the genus Strongylocotes, as well as any other Heptapsogasteridae, are not found on Galliformes (Carriker, 1936).

    •. Mulcticola bacurauValim and Kuabara, 2015 (Philopteridae), 1♂ (MZUSP#6286) ex Furnarius figulus (MNRJ#30335, A.1286), Alto Xingu, Diauarum, MT, Brazil, 25.VI.1949.

    •. Remarks: Mulcticola species have only been recorded as parasites of the Caprimulgidae (Caprimulgiformes) (Price et al., 2003; Valim and Kuabara, 2015). This particular species is a common parasite on Nyctidromus albicollis and has been found in RN, SP and TO (Valim and Kuabara, 2015). The only other caprimulgid specimens sent for identification by H. Sick were Chordeiles rupestris (see text above).

    •. Quadraceps macrocephalus (Philopteridae), 1♀ (MZUSP#6640) ex Milvago chimachima (MNRJ#30513, A.2308), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 02.VII.1952.

    •. Remarks: Species of Quadraceps are not known to parasitize Falconiformes (Price et al., 2003). Rather, this particular species is common on a specimen of Charadrius collaris that was collected at the same place and month as the present sample (see text above).

    •. Tyranniphilopterus sp. (Philopteridae), 1 nymph (MZUSP#6814) ex Brotogeris versicolurus (MNRJ#30693, A.2320), Rio Araguaia, Aragarças, GO, Brazil, 06.VIII.1952.

    •. Remarks: Although only a single nymph was collected, it has various morphological characteristics of species of the genus Tyranniphilopterus (e.g. absence of coni, and presence of sclerotization on hyaline margin). No members of the Philopterus-complex are known to parasitize Psittaciformes (Mey, 2004).

Appendix B

Host-Louse List

Order TINAMIFORMES
Family Tinamidae Gray, 1840
Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815
Microctenia heterocephalus (Menoponidae)
Heptagoniodes agonus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Heptarthrogaster grandis (Heptapsogasteridae)
Ornicholax alienus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes taoi (Heptapsogasteridae)
Rhopaloceras sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pseudolipeurus sp. (Philopteridae)
Tinamus guttatus Pelzln, 1863
Ornicholax olfersi (Heptapsogasteridae)
Kelloggia sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783)
Rhopaloceras sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Crypturellus soui albigularis (Brabourne & Chubb, 1914)
Kelloggia caquetae (Heptapsogasteridae)
Rhopaloceras rudimentarius (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes albigularis (Heptapsogasteridae)
Megapeostus sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815)
Heptapsogaster mandibularis (Heptapsogasteridae)
Hypocrypturellus undulatus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Megapeostus asymmetricus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pectenosoma yapurae (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes variegatus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Rhopaloceras sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Crypturellus undulatus vermiculatus (Temminck, 1825)
Megapeostus asymmetricus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pectenosoma yapurae (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes variegatus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Rhopaloceras sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Crypturellus strigulosus (Temminck, 1815)
Heptapsogaster noctivagi (Heptapsogasteridae)
Hypocrypturellus strigulosus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pectenosoma angusta (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pectenosoma yapurae (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes limai (Heptapsogasteridae)
Rhopaloceras sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pseudolipeurus sp. (Philopteridae)
Pseudophilopterus sp. (Philopteridae)
Crypturellus parvirostris (Wagler, 1827)
Pectenosoma subparva (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes orbicularis (Heptapsogasteridae)
Heptapsogaster sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Hypocrypturellus mendax (Heptapsogasteridae)
Rhopaloceras sp. (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pseudolipeurus longipes (Philopteridae)
Crypturellus tataupa tataupa (Temminck, 1815)
Heptapsogaster temporalis (Heptapsogasteridae)
Heptapsogaster yapurae (Heptapsogasteridae)
Hypocrypturellus genitalis (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pectenosoma yapurae (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes variegatus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Pseudolipeurus longipes (Philopteridae)
Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815)
Menacanthus arctifasciatus (Menoponidae)
Docophorocotes sexsetosus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Rhynchotura sexpunctata (Heptapsogasteridae)
Strongylocotes lipogonus (Heptapsogasteridae)
Tinamicola latithorax (Heptapsogasteridae)
Tinamicola rotundata (Heptapsogasteridae)
Order ANSERIFORMES
Family Anatidae Leach, 1820
Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Holomenopon cairinae (Menoponidae)
Order GALLIFORMES
Family Cracidae Rafinesque, 1815
Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815
Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) aff aburris (Menoponidae)
Menacanthus sp. (Menoponidae)
Pipile cujubi nattereri (Pelzeln, 1858)
Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) sp. (Menoponidae)
Menacanthus sp. (Menoponidae)
Pauxi tuberosum (Spix, 1825)
Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) sp. (Menoponidae)
Oxylipeurus rhynchoti (Philopteridae)
Order CICONIIFORMES
Family Ciconiidae Sundevall, 1836
Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein, 1819)
Colpocephalum mycteriae (Menoponidae)
Order SULIFORMES
Family Phalacrocoracidae Reichenbach, 1849
Phalacrocorax brasilianus (J.F. Gmelin, 1789)
Pectinopygus gyroceras (Philopteridae)
Order PELECANIFORMES
Family Threskiornithidae Poche, 1904
Phimosus infuscatus nudifrons (Spix, 1825)
Eulaemobothrion setigerum (Laemobothriidae)
Order CATHARTIFORMES
Family Cathartidae Lafresnaye, 1839
Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758)
Laemobothrion glutinans (Laemobothriidae)
Colpocephalum megalops (Menoponidae)
Falcolipeurus ternatus (Philopteridae)
Order ACCIPITRIFORMES
Family Accipitridae Vigors, 1824
Gampsonyx swainsonii Vigors, 1825
Degeeriella sp. (Philopteridae)
Spizaetus ornatus (Daudin, 1800)
Colpocephalum sp. (Menoponidae)
Craspedorrhynchus sp. (Philopteridae)
Order CHARADRIIFORMES
Family Charadriidae Leach, 1820
Vanellus cayanus (Latham, 1790)
Actornithophilus ochraceus (Menoponidae)
Quadraceps hasei (Philopteridae)
Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782)
Actornittophilus ochraceus (Menoponidae)
Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818
Quadraceps macrocephalus (Philopteridae)
Saemundssonia (S.) sp. (Philopteridae)
Family Scolopacidae Rafinesque, 1815
Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766)
Quadraceps ravus (Philopteridae)
Family Sternidae Vigors, 1825
Phaetusa simplex (Gmelin, 1789)
Saemundssonia (S.) keleri (Philopteridae)
Family Rynchopidae Bonaparte, 1838
Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758
Quadraceps elongatus (Philopteridae)
Saemundssonia (S.) anisorhamphos (Philopteridae)
Order OPISTHOCOMIFORMES
Family Opisthocomidae Swainson, 1837
Opisthocomus hoazin (Statius Müller, 1776)
Eulaemobothrion opisthocomi (Laemobothriidae)
Hoazineus armiferus (Menoponidae)
Order CUCULIFORMES
Family Cuculidae Leach, 1820
Piaya cayana (Linnaeus, 1766)
Cuculiphilus (C.) fasciativentris (Menoponidae)
Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758
Osborniella crotophagae (Menoponidae)
Guira guira (Gmelin, 1788)
Osborniella guiraensis (Menoponidae)
Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES
Family Caprimulgidae Vigors, 1825
Chordeiles rupestris (Spix, 1825)
Mulcticola sicki (Philopteridae)
Order APODIFORMES
Family Apodidae Olphe-Galliard, 1887
Streptoprocne zonaris (Shaw, 1796)
Dennyus (D.) malagonensis (Menoponidae)
Chaetura meridionalis Hellmayr, 1907
Dennyus (D.) limbus (Menoponidae)
Dennyus (D.) brevicapitis (Menoponidae)
Dennyus (D.) sp. (Menoponidae)
Order TROGONIFORMES
Family Trogonidae Lesson, 1828
Trogon curucui Linnaeus, 1766
Trogoninirmus sp. (Philopteridae)
Order GALBULIFORMES
Family Bucconidae
Nystalus chacuru (Vieillot, 1816)
Mayriphilopterus nystalicus (Philopteridae)
Nystalus maculatus (Gmelin, 1788)
Mayriphilopterus nystalicus (Philopteridae)
Picicola serrafreirei (Philopteridae)
Order PICIFORMES
Family Ramphastidae Vigors, 1825
Ramphastos toco Statius Müller, 1776
Myrsidea witti (Menoponidae)
Austrophilopterus cancellosus (Philopteridae)
Ramphastos cuvieri Wagler, 1827
Menacanthus balfouri (Menoponidae)
Myrsidea extranea (Menoponidae)
Ramphasticola hirsuta (Menoponidae)
Austrophilopterus cancellosus (Philopteridae)
Ramphastos culminatus Gould, 1833
Myrsidea cecilae (Menoponidae)
Pteroglossus beauharnaesii Wagler, 1832
Myrsidea aleixoi (Menoponidae)
Family Picidae Leach, 1820
Melanerpes cruentatus (Boddaert, 1783)
Menacanthus pici (Menoponidae)
Brueelia straminea (Philopteridae)
Penenirmus auritus (Philopteridae)
Colaptes campestris (Viellot, 1818)
Penenirmus auritus (Philopteridae)
Celeus flavescens (Gmelin, 1788)
Picicola sp. (Philopteridae)
Order FALCONIFORMES
Family Falconidae Leach, 1820
Daptrius ater Vieillot, 1816
Colpocephalum ateri (Menoponidae)
Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777)
Colpocephalum maculatum (Menoponidae)
Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816)
Colpocephalum maculatum (Menoponidae)
Acutifrons vieirai (Philopteridae)
Falco femoralis Temminck, 1822
Laemobothrion tinnunculi (Laemobothriidae)
Order PSITTACIFORMES
Family Psittacidae Rafinesque, 1815
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (Latham, 1790)
Heteromenopon (H.) anodorhynchi (Menoponidae)
Psittacobrosus hyacinthini (Menoponidae)
Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758)
Psittacobrosus kelloggi (Menoponidae)
Heteromenopon (H.) sincipitalis (Menoponidae)
Paragoniocotes mirabilis (Philopteridae)
Order PASSERIFORMES
Family Scleruridae (Ménétriès, 1835)
Sclerurus scansor (Ménétriés, 1835)
Myrsidea sp.1 (Menoponidae)
Family Pipridae Rafinesque, 1815
Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Tyranniphilopterus bruneri (Philopteridae)
Family Rhynchocyclidae Berlepsch, 1907
Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1830)
Ricinus sp. (Ricinidae)
Family Tyrannidae Vigors, 1825
Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Menacanthus tyranni (Menoponidae)
Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819
Tyranniphilopterus sp. (Philopteridae)
Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831)
Ricinus sp. (Ricinidae)
Knipolegus poecilocercus (Pelzeln, 1868)
Tyranniphilopterus sp. (Philopteridae)
Family Corvidae Leach, 1820
Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823)
Myrsidea cristatelli (Menoponidae)
Brueelia nitzschi (Philopteridae)
Philopterus sp. (Philopteridae)
Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818)
Myrsidea pseudofalax (Menoponidae)
Brueelia keleri (Philopteridae)
Philopterus sp. (Philopteridae)
Family Hirundinidae Rafinesque, 1815
Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789)
Myrsidea dissimilis (Menoponidae)
Philopterus sp. (Philopteridae)
Tachycineta albiventer (Boddaert, 1783)
Myrsidea dissimilis (Menoponidae)
Philopterus sp. (Philopteridae)
Family Icteridae Vigors, 1825
Cacicus cela (Linnaeus, 1758)
Bizarrifrons picturatus (Philopteridae)
Family Thraupidae Cabanis, 1847
Saltator sp.
Myrsidea lightae (Menoponidae)
Nemosia pileata (Boddaert, 1783)
Ricinus sp. (Ricinidae)
Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert, 1783)
Myrsidea rufi (Menoponidae)
Picicola sp. (Philopteridae)
Ramphocelus carbo (Pallas, 1764)
Myrsidea ramphoceli (Menoponidae)
Thraupis palmarum (Wied, 1821)
Myrsidea seminuda (Menoponidae)
Thraupidae
Ricinus sp. (Ricinidae)
Family Cardinalidae Ridgway, 1901
Piranga flava (Vieillot, 1822)
Myrsidea sp.2 (Menoponidae)
Family Fringillidae Leach, 1820
Euphonia chlorotica (Linnaeus, 1766)
Myrsidea sp.3 (Menoponidae)
Myrsidea sp.4 (Menoponidae)

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Received: July 27, 2016; Accepted: December 19, 2016

* Corresponding author. E-mails:kuabara.mayumi@hotmail.com (K.M.D. Kuabara).

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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