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Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo)

Print version ISSN 0101-6083On-line version ISSN 1806-938X


ARAUJO, Renata Brasil et al. Induction and comparison of craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack. Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (São Paulo) [online]. 2015, vol.42, n.5, pp.117-121. ISSN 0101-6083.


The literature findings report that use of multiple substances can produce adverse clinical and behavioral effects, which may affect craving and the results of drug treatment. Also, the understanding of craving construct and its interaction in the use of smoked substances is underexplored.


To induce and compare craving for tobacco, marijuana and crack-cocaine on hospitalized dependents whose drug of choice is crack-cocaine.


Quasi-experimental study with a convenience sample consisting of 210 males divided into 3 equal groups (Group-1: craving induced by crack; Group-2: craving induced by tobacco; and Group-3: craving induced by marijuana). All participants met ICD-10 dependence criteria for cocaine/crack, marijuana and tobacco, were aged between 18 and 65 and had used these substances for at least one year. Photos were used to induce craving and self-report instruments to evaluate possible alterations.


This study showed that craving for tobacco was more intense than for marijuana and crack, when the groups were compared by VAS. Using specific scales, both craving for tobacco and craving for marijuana were more intense than craving for crack.


These results would imply interventions at the initial stages of abstinence with cognitive-behavioural techniques and pharmacotherapy in order to reduce craving.

Keywords : Craving; tobacco; marijuana; crack cocaine; multiple dependence.

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