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Print version ISSN 0104-4060

Educ. rev.  no.spe Curitiba  2006

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0104-4060.405 

Aprendendo e ensinando sobre o passado a crianças de três a oito anos*

 

Learning and teaching about the past: three to eight year olds

 

 

Hilary Cooper

Professora de História e Pedagogia. St. Martin's College, Lancaster, England. E.mail: hilary.cooper@btopenworld.com

 

 


RESUMO

Este trabalho tece considerações sobre como podemos ajudar crianças pequenas a se relacionarem com o passado por meios que reflitam uma genuína investigação histórica. Define os processos chaves do pensamento histórico em qualquer nível, tais como: a discussão de causas e efeitos das mudanças ao longo do tempo; a realização de inferências a partir de fontes históricas para construir justificativas sobre o passado, utilizando-se vocabulário especializado e compreendendo porque as justificativas históricas podem diferir, mas serem igualmente válidas. Considera formas nas quais as teorias construtivistas de aprendizagem de Piaget, Vigotsky, Bruner, e pesquisas baseadas nos trabalhos destes autores, podem ser aplicadas à História, desde a mais tenra infância, e em formas crescentes de complexidade. Discute a importância de aprender História como uma dimensão dos anos iniciais da educação, de maneira que possua múltiplas perspectivas e seja significativa para as crianças; que permita que as crianças formulem hipóteses, avaliem, sustentem idéias com argumentos, ouçam os outros e reconheçam que, às vezes, não há respostas certas. Sugere contextos familiares nos quais as crianças possam iniciar a discussão de causas e efeitos de mudanças ao longo do tempo, fazer inferências sobre uma variedade de fontes históricas, bem como construir e comparar interpretações sobre o passado, compreendendo o motivo pelo qual elas podem variar. Discute que o aprendizado sobre o passado é parte integrante do desenvolvimento social, emocional e cognitivo. O trabalho é concluído com trechos de diálogos que ilustram a progressão do raciocínio das crianças sobre o passado.

Palavras-chave: Ensino de História; Educação Histórica; Construtivismo


ABSTRACT

This paper considers how we can help young children to engage with the past, in ways which reflect genuine historical enquiry. It defines the key process of historical thinking, at any lever as: discussing the causes and effects of changes over time; making inferences from historical sources in order to construct accounts of the past using specialized vocabulary, and understanding why-historical accounts may differ but be equally valid. The paper then considers ways in which the constructivist learning theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, and subsequent research based on their work, can be applied to history, from children's earliest years, and in increasingly complex ways. It argues the importance of learning history as a dimension of early years education in ways which are meaningful to children and multi perspectival; which allow them to hypothesise, evaluate, support ideas with arguments, listen to others and recognize that sometimes there is no right answer. It then suggests many familiar contexts in which young children can begin to discuss the causes and effects of changes over time, make inferences about a variety of historical sources and construct, compare interpretations of the past and understand why they may vary. It is argued that learning about the past is an integral part of social, emotional, as well as cognitive development. The paper concludes with extracts from dialogue which illustrate progression in children's reasoning about the past.

Key-words: Teaching History; Historical Education; Constructivist.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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Texto recebido em 16 fev. 2005
Texto aprovado em 17 nov. 2005

 

 

* Texto traduzido do original "Learning and Teaching about the Past: three to eight year olds" por Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos Schmidt, Luciana Braga Garcia, Maria Auxiliadora Schmidt e Tânia Braga Garcia.
1 N.T.: Utilizou-se a forma "histórias" correspondendo ao termo inglês story usado pela autora
2 NT: Embora a autora use, aqui, a palavra story, optou-se pelo uso exclusivo da forma "história".

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