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Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

Print version ISSN 1516-8913On-line version ISSN 1678-4324

Abstract

DEVRAJAN, A. et al. Evaluation of apple pomace based reconstituted feed in rats after solid state fermentation and ethanol recovery. Braz. arch. biol. technol. [online]. 2004, vol.47, n.1, pp.93-106. ISSN 1516-8913.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132004000100013.

To utilize apple pomace in an economical and effective way, a feed was developed by solid state fermentation (SSF) using sequential interactive co-culture of Candida utilis and Kloeckera. Removal of ethanol and drying of the left - over residue. Feeding trial was conducted in white albino rats before and after reconstitution of apple pomace feed in the choice and no choice study. Feeding of apple pomace feed in the rats before reconstitution indicated that neither in fermented nor in unfermented form it was acceptable. In the no choice study both in 100% fermented and unfermented apple pomace group feed intake decreased continuously resulting in death of rats apparently due to decreased digestibility owing to high fibre content. Further, fermented or unfermented apple pomace based feed had lower digestibility and efficiency of conversion than the standard rat feed. Compared to the standard feed group, growth rates in all the feed groups were negative. The results of choice study of different feeds corroborated with the no-choice study mentioned earlier. Incorporation of fermented apple pomace into standard rat feed in the ratio of 1:1 gave better acceptability and digestibility. Reconstituted feed with 10% jaggery, 2% groundnut oil, 0.01% mixed flavour and 1% salt was the most acceptable. The post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial revealed generalized oedema, probably due to some hepatotoxin in the feed. The blood glucose level in the apple pomace feed group except that was reconstituted with jaggery, showed a general hypoglycemia, though falling in the range. The increased ALT and AST levels in the serum also suggest damage to the liver. The mortality rate, post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial and blood biochemical analysis of rat serum suggest a more elaborative study for extended period of time.

Keywords : Apple pomace; rat feed; solid state fermentation; ethanol.

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