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Print version ISSN 0001-3765On-line version ISSN 1678-2690


MACHADO, Elizabeth S. et al. Overview of genotypic and clinical profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2004, vol.76, n.4, pp.727-741. ISSN 0001-3765.

Although mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention has slowed down pediatric HIV infection in developed countries, large numbers of infants still become infected in developing nations. Data on pediatric HIV infection is however largely scarce. In this study, we have overviewed clinical, laboratory and genotypic data from a large cohort of HIV-infected infants regularly followed at two pediatric HIV outpatient clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Children on antiretroviral therapy, as well as drug-naïve, newly diagnosed infants were analyzed. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations, as well as immunological and virological responses to therapy were evaluated. Additionally, HIV-1 subtype frequencies and their distribution over the course of the epidemic were studied. We have found a high prevalence of mutations among ARV-experienced children, whereas mutations were absent in the drug-naïve group. Despite the high levels of resistance among treated infants, an important improvement of their immunological status was observed. HIV-1 subtype distribution followed the trends of the adult population, with the appearance of non-B subtypes and recombinant forms after 1990. To our knowledge, this is the largest pediatric cohort ever analyzed in Brazil, and the data provided is of paramount importance to a better understanding of HIV/AIDS evolution in pediatric settings.

Keywords : HIV-1; pediatric; drug resistance; clinical; genotyping; subtype.

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