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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Print version ISSN 0001-3765
NARDI, Lauro V.S.; PLA-CID, Jorge; BITENCOURT, Maria de Fátima and STABEL, Larissa Z.. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of post-collisional ultrapotassic syenites and granites from southernmost Brazil: the Piquiri Syenite Massif. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2008, vol.80, n.2, pp. 353-371. ISSN 0001-3765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652008000200014.
The Piquiri Syenite Massif, southernmost Brazil, is part of the post-collisional magmatism related to the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogenic Cycle. The massif is about 12 km in diameter and is composed of syenites, granites, monzonitic rocks and lamprophyres. Diopside-phlogopite, diopside-biotite-augite-calcic-amphibole, are the main ferro-magnesian paragenesis in the syenitic rocks. Syenitic and granitic rocks are co-magmatic and related to an ultrapotassic, silica-saturated magmatism. Their trace element patterns indicate a probable mantle source modified by previous, subduction-related metasomatism. The ultrapotassic granites of this massif were produced by fractional crystallization of syenitic magmas, and may be considered as a particular group of hypersolvus and subsolvus A-type granites. Based upon textural, structural and geochemical data most of the syenitic rocks, particularly the fine-grained types, are considered as crystallized liquids, in spite of the abundance of cumulatic layers, schlieren, and compositional banding. Most of the studied samples are metaluminous, with K2O/Na2O ratios higher than 2. The ultrapotassic syenitic and lamprophyric rocks in the Piquiri massif are interpreted to have been produced from enriched mantle sources, OIB-type, like most of the post-collisional shoshonitic, sodic alkaline and high-K tholeiitic magmatism in southernmost Brazil. The source of the ultrapotassic and lamprophyric magmas is probably the same veined mantle, with abundant phlogopite + apatite + amphibole that reflects a previous subduction-related metasomatism.
Keywords : post-collisional magmatism; ultrapotassic syenites; ultrapotassic granites; A-type magmatism; Piquiri Syenite Massif.