Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Print version ISSN 0001-3765
HIRATA, Ricardo and CONICELLI, Bruno P.. Groundwater resources in Brazil: a review of possible impacts caused by climate change. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2012, vol.84, n.2, pp. 297-312. Epub May 24, 2012. ISSN 0001-3765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652012005000037.
Groundwater has a strategic role in times of climate change mainly because aquifers can provide water for long periods, even during very long and severe drought. The reduction and/or changes on the precipitation pattern can diminish the recharge mainly in unconfined aquifer, causing available groundwater restriction. The expected impact of long-term climate changes on the Brazilian aquifers for 2050 will lead to a severe reduction in 70% of recharge in the Northeast region aquifers (comparing to 2010 values), varying from 30% to 70% in the North region. Data referring to the South and Southeast regions are more favorable, with an increase in the relative recharge values from 30% to 100%. Another expected impact is the increase in demand and the decrease in the surface water availability that will make the population turn to aquifers as its main source of water for public or private uses in many regions of the country. Thus, an integrated use of surface and groundwater must therefore be considered in the water use planning. The solution of water scarcity is based on three factors: society growth awareness, better knowledge on the characteristics of hydraulic and chemical aquifers and effective management actions.
Keywords : Drought; groundwater; aquifer recharge; integrated use of water; water resources management.