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ZEPPELINI, CAIO G.; DE ALMEIDA, ALZIRA M.P.  and  CORDEIRO-ESTRELA, PEDRO. Ongoing quiescence in the Borborema Plateau Plague focus (Paraiba, Brazil). An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2018, vol.90, n.3, pp.3007-3015. ISSN 0001-3765.

Plague is a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, whose cycle is based on a reservoir system composed of mammals and their fleas. Its transmission cycle presents long enzootic periods with undetected cases, sometimes misleading that the cycle is extinct. While surveillance activities in Brazil are being carried out only in some focal areas, the serologic results confirm the persistence of Y. pestis in all monitored areas. We studied the small mammal assembly and Y. pestis presencein the Borborema Plateau Focus within the state of Paraíba, which staged the last Brazilian plague outbreak (1986-1987), through aninventory and Y. pestis detection survey of small mammals in peridomestic and sylvatic areas from two municipalities in the state of Paraíba.The field sampling captured 45 specimens (27 marsupials, 18 rodents), of 10 species. Only two species (one marsupial, one rodent) were captured in both peridomestic and sylvatic ecotopes. The sylvatic ecotope had higher richness and abundance. No evidence of circulation of the pathogen was detected, however, this result does not discard the necessity of continuous epidemiological surveillance due to the risk of rekindling the foci after long dormant periods, especially given the current epidemiological transition occurring on a Global scale.

Keywords : small mammals; peridomestic environment; Yersinia pestis; quiescence; surveillance.

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