Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia
Print version ISSN 0004-2730
DAMIANI, Durval and DAMIANI, Daniel. Hyperglycemic acute crisis in type 1 diabetes mellitus in youth. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab [online]. 2008, vol.52, n.2, pp. 367-374. ISSN 0004-2730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302008000200025.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the main hyperglycemic complication in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1). The basic principles in treatment have to be followed carefully. The patient with DKA has a very deep volume depletion. To restore the circulatory capacity is the first step. From this point on, the restoration of the lost fluids is slow, around 1% per hour, aiming at the correction of the metabolic disturbance already on and avoiding great fluctuations in osmolality, which increases the risk of having complications. Attention to the development of cerebral edema, which, once suspected, deserves an urgent treatment plan, trying to avoid neurologic sequelae or even death. Subcutaneous ultra-rapid insulin has been demonstrated to be efficient and easier to use. As the perfusion gets improved and the levels of insulin increase, the lipolysis is blocked, as well as the generation of ketones and so the acidemia tends to be solved. DKA is still a high-mortality condition. And to be in a hurry frequently leads to neurologic sequelae and even to a fatal outcome.
Keywords : Diabetic ketoacidosis; Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state; Cerebral edema; Metabolic acidosis; Dehydration.