Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia
Print version ISSN 0004-2730
SOUZA, Camila Furtado de; GROSS, Jorge Luiz; GERCHMAN, Fernando and LEITAO, Cristiane Bauermann. Prediabetes: diagnosis, evaluation of chronic complications, and treatment. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab [online]. 2012, vol.56, n.5, pp. 275-284. ISSN 0004-2730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302012000500001.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 90% of diabetes cases and is associated with macro- and microvascular complications of high morbidity and mortality. Individuals with increased risk for type 2 diabetes include those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and especially those with combined IFG and IGT. These individuals are part of a group known as prediabetes patients. Approximately 25% of individuals with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes in three to five years. Hyperglycemia, in the absence of diabetes, is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that changes in lifestyle and drug interventions are effective in delaying or preventing type 2 diabetes in patients with prediabetes. Metformin is the drug of choice when medical treatment is warranted. IGT and IFG are associated with type 2 diabetes and, despite controversy, most studies reinforce the importance of these conditions in the development of micro- and macrovascular disease. Thus, therapeutic interventions in patients with prediabetes are important in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications.
Keywords : Prediabetes; diabetes mellitus; microvascular complications; cardiovascular disease; prevention.