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Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
On-line version ISSN 1678-2925
GOUVEIA, Enéias Bezerra; MORALES, Maira Saad de Ávila; GOUVEIA, Gedeão Bezerra and LOURENZI, Valeria Pinheiro M.. Ocular toxicity due to 4-aminoquinoline derivatives. Arq. Bras. Oftalmol. [online]. 2007, vol.70, n.6, pp. 1046-1051. ISSN 1678-2925. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27492007000600033.
Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been extensively studied since its first description in 1957. This drug is used on a chronic basis to treat several rheumatologic and dermatologic diseases, a there is a trend to use hydroxychloroquine rather than chloroquine. The recommended dose for hydroxychloroquine is 4 mg/kg lean body weight per day. The clinical picture of chloroquine retinopathy is characterized by a paracentral visual field scotoma with associated parafoveal retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, known as 'bull's eye maculopathy. The visual field and Amsler grids are the exams that early detect toxicity retinopathy. The authors aim to review the pathogenesis, clinical features, differential diagnosis, complementary exams, and treatment. The sources of references were PubMed (MEDLINE), LILACS and Ophthalmology Library databases.
Keywords : Chloroquine [toxicity]; Hydroxychloroquine [toxicity]; Retinal diseases [chemically induced]; Macula lutea [drug effects].