Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
versão impressa ISSN 0004-2749
RODRIGUES, Luciana Duarte et al. Diagnostic methods for chloroquine diphosphate induced retinopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arq. Bras. Oftalmol. [online]. 2009, vol.72, n.3, pp. 313-320. ISSN 0004-2749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27492009000300007.
PURPOSE: To evaluate different diagnostic methods for high risk chloroquine retinopathy due to prolonged use of chloroquine (more than 5 years) by systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Methods: Seventy-two eyes of 36 consecutive patients, followed in the Division of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, were analyzed from July 2007 to April 2008. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated in order to study risk factors and to compare the following different ophthalmological methods: visual acuity, biomicroscopy, fundus examination, retinography, fluorescein angiogram, visual field test and, color vision tests. RESULTS: From 36 patients, 34 (94.4%) were female. The mean age was 39.9 ± 9.8 years and the disease duration was 13.9 ± 6.6 years. Besides chronic use of chloroquine, patients also showed high daily and cumulative doses. These high risk factors were not related to a higher retinopathy prevalence. Visual field showed 38.9% of retinopathy prevalence. Other ophthalmological methods failed in detecting most cases. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of retinopathy in high risk patients was observed by visual field test, but other ophthalmological methods failed in detecting alterations. Ophthalmological assessment of these patients should include visual field, even in the absence of clinical alterations.
Palavras-chave : Retina [pathology]; Retina [drug effects]; Chloroquine [therapeutic use]; Lupus erythematosus, systemic; Risk factors.