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Jornal de Pediatria
Print version ISSN 0021-7557
SANTOS, Luis R. Longo dos et al. Prognostic factors and survival in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2003, vol.79, n.1, pp. 81-86. ISSN 0021-7557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572003000100014.
Objective: to evaluate the prognostic factors importance to survival in neonatal period of newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated at Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine of Universidade de São Paulo, and to compare the outcome with data published in medical literature. So that the results of this study might allow updating family counseling and guiding changes in clinical management of our department. Methods: retrospective study of 27 consecutive newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia admitted to the Pediatric Surgery Department of Instituto da Criança, School of Medicine of Universidade de São Paulo, from April 1991 to January 2002, and statistical comparison with medical literature metanalysis data. Results: of 27 patients, 15 were born at our institution and 12 were admitted by transference after birth. Twelve (44%) have had congenital diaphragmatic hernia diagnosed prenatally and 23 (85%) were full-term newborns. Most patients presented early respiratory distress and needed intubation at delivery room. Six newborns presented criteria for indication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Twenty patients (74%) were submitted to operative repair and seven (26%) died without the minimal clinical stabilization necessary for surgical procedure (five of these patients reached criteria for indication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). The postoperative mortality was 25% (5/20). The overall survival of neonatal period was 56% (15/27). The survival of patients that were born at our hospital was 33% (4/12), and the survival of the newborns admitted by transference was 73% (11/15). Severe respiratory distress, early indication to mechanical ventilation and severe hypoxemia (post-ductal pO2 < 100 mmHg despite all efforts) were identified as predictors of bad outcome with statistical significance. Conclusion: our high mortality rate of newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia is statistically similar to that described in international publications. In the group of non-responsive patients to standard treatment available, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should be able to reduce mortality. The impact of this therapeutical strategy in the overall survival depends on other factors that were not analyzed in the present study. Family counseling of patients' parents on congenital diaphragmatic hernia in our department may follow the same patterns referred in world medical literature.
Keywords : congenital diaphragmatic hernia; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; newborn respiratory failure.