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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
NASCIMENTO-CARVALHO, Cristiana M. et al. Invasive pneumococcal strains isolated from children and adolescents in Salvador. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2003, vol.79, n.3, pp. 209-214. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572003000300005.
OBJECTIVE: describe the antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of pneumococcal strains. METHODS: in a 57-month period, a laboratory-based surveillance of invasive pneumococcal strains from patients aged < 20 years was conducted. Pneumococcus was identified by means of tests for solubility in bile and optochin. Pneumococcal resistance to penicillin was screened by 1µg oxacillin disc and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for the strains not susceptible to penicillin. Disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods were used for surveillance of resistance to other antimicrobials. Pneumococci were serotyped by means of the Neufeld-Quellung reactions. RESULTS: of 70 patients, 57.1% were males. The mean age was 1.92 yrs (mean 3.19 + 3.66 yrs, range 1 month to 19.5 yrs); 52.9% and 81.4% were < 2 yrs and < 5 yrs, respectively. The strains were isolated from blood (91.4%), CSF (2.9%), pleural (2.9%), peritoneal (1.4%) and abscess (1.4%) fluids from patients with pneumonia (77.1%), fever without localizing signs (10.0%), meningitis (4.3%), others (8.6%). Resistance was detected to penicillin (20.0%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (65.7%), tetracycline (21.4%), ofloxacin (6.3%), erythromycin (5.7%), clindamycin (2.9%). All tested strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and vancomycin. Among penicillin-resistant strains, high resistance was detected in one, the same that showed intermediate resistance to cefotaxime. The most frequent serotypes were: 14 (22.9%), 5 and 6A (10.0% each), 6B and 19F (8.6% each), 9V, 18C and 23F (5.7% each). Resistance to penicillin was detected in serotypes 14 (71.4%), 6B and 19F (14.3% each). CONCLUSIONS: of 70 strains, 67.2% were classified as serotypes included in the heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine as well as were all penicillin-resistant strains.
Keywords : Streptococcus pneumoniae; antimicrobial resistance; serotypes; invasive disease; children; adolescents.