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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
SFOGGIA, Ana et al. Sedation and analgesia in children submitted to mechanical ventilation could be overestimated?. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2003, vol.79, n.4, pp. 343-348. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572003000400013.
OBJECTIVE: to describe the pattern of analgesic and sedative infusions in children submitted to mechanical ventilation in a regional pediatric intensive care unit during a 12-month period. To compare the use of these drugs among clinical and surgical patients, as well evaluate the influence of the length of use on the average daily doses and on the incidence of abstinence syndrome. METHODS: this cohort study was performed from April 2001 to March 2002, involving children (1 month old to 15 years old) submitted to the mechanical ventilation with a tracheal tube for a period longer than 12 hours and who were successfully extubated (dead patients and those who required reintubation were excluded from the study). A team of professionals not involved with the patient's assistance performed a daily collection of all data up to the 28th day under mechanical ventilation (maximum length of follow up for those who remain longer under mechanical ventilation). The main outcome was the infusion doses of morphine, fentanyl, ketamine and midazolam administered at 12 AM (considering this dose as the average dose for that day). The diagnosis of abstinence syndrome was based on the chart revision (recorded diagnosis or based on the specific antagonist treatment used) and in an interview with the assistant physician on the following days after the extubation. This study was approved by the Ethics and Scientific Committee of the HSL-PUCRS. RESULTS: 127 children were eligible for this study, but only 124 patients were analyzed (16.0+29-5 months old; 58% male; 92 defined as clinical patients and 32 as surgical patients). An average of 1.7 sedative-analgesic infusion per patient a day was used in the whole group (without difference between clinical and surgical groups). Morphine and fentanyl were the most common drugs infused in both groups (fentanyl was preferred for the clinical group and morphine for the surgical group). The mean length of infusion was different (p<0.01) between clinical and surgical patients (6.8 and 3.9 days, respectively). After the 7th day, there was a significant increase in the fentanyl and midazolam doses (p<0.01), as well as a higher incidence of abstinence syndrome in the clinical group (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: this study evaluated the daily practice in a regional PICU, and it demonstrated that analgesic and sedative infusions in children submitted to mechanical ventilation are used according to an uncontrolled pattern (average 1.7 drugs/patient/day) and those classified as clinical patients used these drugs for longer periods, what could explain the higher prevalence of abstinence syndrome in this group.
Keywords : mechanical ventilation; sedative drug; analgesic drug; morphine; Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.