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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
MANTESE, Orlando C. et al. Prevalence of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of invasive strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2003, vol.79, n.6, pp. 537-542. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572003000600013.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and to discuss the implications of these findings for vaccine formulation. METHODS: Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from normally sterile fluids from patients admitted with invasive diseases were isolated and identified at the Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, and forwarded to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, state of São Paulo, for further identification, serotyping and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: From April 1999 to March 2003, 148 invasive strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained. The age of patients ranged from 1 day to 88.83 years (mean: 21.33+25.82 years; median: 4.42 years). Eighty-four (56.7%) patients were male. The most common diagnoses were pneumonia (91 cases; 61.4%), meningitis (32 cases; 21.6%) and occult bacteremia (15 cases; 10.1%). Strains were isolated mostly from blood (76 occasions; 51.3%), pleural fluid (39 occasions; 26.3%) and cerebrospinal fluid (30 occasions; 20.2%). There were 23 different serotypes, and the most common were 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B and 18C. Among 30 (20.2%) oxacillin-resistant strains, 23 (15.5%) were confirmed as resistant to penicillin (12.8% intermediate resistance and 2.7% full resistance). Oxacillin-resistant strains were restricted to serotypes 14, 23F, 19A and 6B. Resistance to penicillin varied with age, being more common in children under two years of age (p=0.0008). We observed decreased sensibility to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (92 isolates; 63.4%), to erythromycin (12 isolates; 8.3%), to clindamycin (12 isolates ;8.7%), to ofloxacin (one strain; 0.8%) and to cefotaxime (three strains; 2%; also resistant to penicillin). All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, rifampin and vancomycin. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased susceptibility to penicillin, detected in 15.5% of the strains was predominant in children under two years of age. There were 23 different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. The 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine covers 82.6% of the serotypes and 90.2% of the invasive strains isolated in this population. In addition, 46.7% of the serotypes and 63.6% of the strains isolated from children until five years of age are covered in the currently available 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PN CRM7).
Keywords : Streptococcus pneumoniae; serotypes; vaccines.