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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
REGO FILHO, Eduardo A.; MELLO, Solange F. R.; OMURO, André M. and LOLI, José O. C.. Simultaneous onset of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and type 1 diabetes. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2003, vol.79, n.6, pp. 557-560. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572003000600016.
OBJECTIVE: We describe the case of a boy with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome coexisting with type-1 diabetes mellitus. The interest to this clinical case is due to the unusual association of these diseases, the clinical symptoms and laboratory tests used to confirm diagnosis and the difficulties on corticotherapy. DESCRIPTION: Nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed in a boy (age 3 years and 11 months) with generalized edema. Marked weight loss (23 to 16 kg), polyuria, polydipsia and weakness were observed after three weeks of treatment with prednisone 2 mg/kg/day. Diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed by laboratory tests: hyperglycemia (glucose 657 mg/dl), glycosuria without proteinuria, acidosis and ketonuria. Therapy with insulin and prednisone was started. He was then maintained on a daily dose of NPH insulin. At age 4 years and 1 month a new episode of ketoacidosis without proteinuria occurred in association with a viral infection of the upper airways. At age 4 years and 4 months nephrotic syndrome relapsed, but the child responded well to steroid therapy. There was another relapse three months later, when prednisone treatment was interrupted. This led to the introduction of cyclophosphamide, with good results. Since then, the patient (now 5 years and 6 months old) has been taking insulin daily and nephrotic syndrome has not relapsed. Plasma levels of C3 and C4 and renal function are normal. Hematuria is occasionally present. Anti-GAD antibodies (glutamic decarboxilase) are normal and anti-islet cell antibodies are positive. HLA antigens: A2; B44; B52; DR4; DR8; DR53. COMMENTS: The simultaneous occurrence of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and type-1 diabetes mellitus is rare. The literature data, the familiar pattern and studies on HLA antigens are discussed.
Keywords : Type-1 diabetes mellitus; nephrotic syndrome; steroid-sensitive; HLA antigens.