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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
SUGUIHARA, Cleide and LESSA, Andrea Cacho. Strategies to minimize lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2005, vol.81, n.1, suppl.1, pp. S69-S78. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572005000200009.
OBJECTIVE: To review the main causes of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the strategies utilized to decrease its incidence in extremely low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: For this review a MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2004, the Cochrane Database, abstracts from the Society for Pediatric Research and recent meetings on the topic were used. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The survival of extremely low birth weight infants has increased significantly due to improvement in both scientific knowledge and technology. This improvement in survival has therefore resulted in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants, the so called "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia are quite different from the classic bronchopulmonary dysplasia described by Northway. This new bronchopulmonary dysplasia has a multifactorial etiology, which includes volutrauma, atelectrauma, oxygen toxicity and lung inflammation. Therapy such as prenatal corticosteroids, exogenous surfactant, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, new mechanical ventilation modalities and gentle ventilation have been used in attempts to decrease lung injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants, it is necessary to minimize several factors that induce bronchopulmonary dysplasia and to utilize less aggressive therapeutic strategies. In addition to the current therapy used to decrease lung injury, knowledge of these causative factors may create new therapies that may be fundamental in improving the clinical outcomes of premature infants.
Keywords : Extremely low birth weight infant; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; mechanical ventilation.