Jornal de Pediatria
Print version ISSN 0021-7557
GRANDI, Carlos; TAPIA, José L.; MARSHALL, Guillermo and GRUPO COLABORATIVO NEOCOSUR. An assessment of the severity, proportionality and risk of mortality of very low birth weight infants with fetal growth restriction: a multicenter South American analysis. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2005, vol.81, n.3, pp. 198-204. ISSN 0021-7557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572005000400005.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical severity and proportionality of small for gestational age, very low birth weight neonates (< 1,500 g) and to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with the condition of being small for gestational age according to the degree of severity and proportionality. METHODS: Observational design. All of the NEOCOSUR Collaborative Group's very low birth weight infants (25-36 weeks' gestation) were included (n = 1,518). Anthropometric indices: birth weight < 3rd and 10th percentile. Severity (fetal growth ratio = observed weight/mean birth weight for gestational age); no growth restriction: fetal growth ratio 0.90-1.10, mild: fetal growth ratio 0.80-0.89, moderate: fetal growth ratio 0.75-0.79 and severe: fetal growth ratio < 0.75. Proportionality: coefficient of bimodality and z score for ponderal index (PI = g/cm3 *100). Neonatal mortality until discharge. RESULTS: < 3rd percentile: 13.5% (p < 0.001); < 10th percentile: 31% (p < 0.001); fetal growth ratio: 0.90±0.21 (p < 0.001), mild restriction: 20.8%, moderate restriction: 8.7% and severe restriction: 32.6%. Coefficient of bimodality: 0.53; PI z score < -1: 8%. Maternal hypertensive disease was systematically associated with being small for gestational age (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 0.86-1.67), fetal growth ratio < 0.89 (aOR 1.71, 1.24-2.36) and PI z score < -1 (aOR 1.60, 1.03-2.41). Adjusted odds ratios for neonatal mortality were: 2.64 (95% CI 1.71-3.92) for being small for gestational age, 2.76 (95% CI 1.85-4.10) for fetal growth ratio < 0.89, and 1.37 (95% CI 0.80-2.32) for z score PI < -1. CONCLUSIONS: Small for gestational age, mostly symmetric and severe restriction is a frequent condition in < 1,500 g neonates and is associated with higher mortality rates.
Keywords : Very low birth weight; small for gestational age; multicenter networks.