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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
MAIA, Frederico F. R. and ARAUJO, Levimar R.. Accuracy, utility and complications of continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2005, vol.81, n.4, pp. 293-297. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572005000500006.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy, utility and complications of continuous glucose monitoring system in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This retrospective study assessed 16 type 1 diabetic patients (16.12±4.41 years) submitted to continuous glucose monitoring system (Medtronic; Northridge, CA) for 72 hours. The following parameters were analyzed: mean capillary glucose level and mean glucose value measured by the continuous glucose monitoring system; glucose excursions (continuous glucose monitoring system vs. capillary glucose measurement), postprandial hyperglycemia (NR < 140 mg/dl), nocturnal hypoglycemia, complications (trauma, local infection, disconnection) and therapeutic management after continuous glucose monitoring. A1c levels were measured at the beginning and after 3 months of the study. RESULTS: The mean capillary glucose values were 214.3±66.5 mg/dl vs. 207.6±54.6 mg/dl by continuous glucose monitoring system, with a significant correlation (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient and mean absolute error were 0.86±0.21 and 12.6% of the median, respectively. The continuous glucose monitoring system was significantly more efficient in detecting glucose excursion than fingerstick capillary blood sampling (p = 0.04; W = 74), and postprandial hyperglycemia was identified in 60% of type 1 diabetic patients with a median value of 157 mg/dl (< 140 mg/dl). Nocturnal hypoglycemia was detected in 46.7% of these patients. The evaluation of A1c levels in eight (50%) patients before continuous glucose monitoring and after 3 months showed a significantly lower level of A1c in this population (8.18±1.5 vs. 7.28±1.3; p = 0.034). The therapeutic management of type 1 diabetes was changed in 100% of patients. No complications were detected in 93.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous glucose monitoring system showed to be a very safe, well-tolerated and highly accurate method, with a low complication rate. It is a good method to identify glucose excursion and postprandial hyperglycemia, and to improve metabolic changes in therapeutic strategies, with a significant impact on the A1c levels of pediatric diabetic patients. The efficacy of the continuous glucose monitoring system in detecting hypoglycemia is still unclear in the medical literature.
Keywords : Continuous glucose monitoring system; type 1 diabetes; hypoglycemia; hyperglycemia.