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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
MOTTA, Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida et al. Does birth weight affect nutritional status at the end of first year of life?. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2005, vol.81, n.5, pp. 377-382. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.2223/JPED.1388.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between low birth weight and nutritional status at the end of the first year of life. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study within a cohort. The study was carried out at maternity hospitals in four cities in the Zona da Mata Meridional in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Newborn infants were recruited during the first 24 hours of life. Their weights were measured at birth and at the end of the first year of life. Household visits were made twice weekly during the first year of life to collect data on breastfeeding and occurrence of diarrhea. In the case-control study, each case (child at nutritional risk) was a child with weight-for-age index < the 10th percentile (n = 117) and each control was a child with weight-for-age index = the 10th percentile (n = 411). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to investigate risk factors for nutritional status at 12 months. RESULTS: Low birth weight and living in a household with no latrine were significantly associated with nutritional risk at the end of the first year of life. Children born weighing 1,500 g to 2,499 g had 29 times (95% CI = 9.77-87.49) the chance of being at nutritional risk at 12 months of life than those whose birth weights had been > 3,500 g (p < 0.001). Children living in households without a flush toilet had three times (95% CI = 1.54-6.22) the chance of nutritional risk at 12 months of life in relation to those that had a latrine with a septic tank at home (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Low birth weight is an important risk factor of nutritional risk at the end of the first year of life. It is important to adopt strategies for its reduction and prevention.
Keywords : Nutrition assessment; low birth weight infant; weight age; case-control study.