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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
CAMPAGNA, Delmina de S.; MIAGOSTOVICH, Marize P.; SIQUEIRA, Marilda M. and CUNHA, Rivaldo V. da. Etiology of exanthema in children in a dengue endemic area. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2006, vol.82, n.5, pp. 354-358. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572006000600008.
OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology of exanthema cases, with or without fever, in children seen in the emergency room of a hospital located in a region where dengue is endemic. METHODS: Enrollment took place between 21/09/2001 and 20/09/2002 and included 95.9% (71/74) of children presenting with exanthema at the emergency room of the Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande, MS (4.1% refusals). After the children had had their details taken and entered on the study protocol, they were subjected to physical examination followed by collection of blood samples for blood testing with platelet counts and serology (IgM and IgG); initially for dengue, rubella and toxoplasmosis and then, in negative cases, serology was also run for parvovirus, herpes virus type 6 and measles. RESULTS: Laboratory diagnoses were confirmed by means of IgM antibody assay in 88.7% of the cases investigated: dengue (77.5%), herpes virus type 6 (8.4%), parvovirus (2.8%) and in eight patients diagnosis was inconclusive (11.3%). On this occasion no positive serology (IgM) was observed for measles, rubella or toxoplasmosis. The most common clinical manifestations among the dengue patients were: fever, itching, prostration, myalgia and positive tourniquet test results. In 58.4% (32/55) of those cases diagnosed with dengue, the tourniquet test was positive, which was a statistically significant difference when compared with the remainder of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: When children present with exanthema, it is possible that dengue is the primary causative disease, depending on the epidemiology of the location. Constant control of epidemiological and serological surveillance of exanthematous diseases is necessary.
Keywords : Exanthema; children; dengue.