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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
SINGHI, Sunit; KISSOON, Niranjan and BANSAL, Arun. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: management issues in an intensive care unit. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2007, vol.83, n.2, suppl., pp. S22-S35. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572007000300004.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment of dengue fever and dengue shock syndrome. SOURCES: To prepare this review, a literature search was made on Pubmed and on the World Health Organization (WHO) and PAHO websites using the terms dengue and dengue shock syndrome. This information was complemented with personal practice. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. Its presentation is protean and varies from an undifferentiated viral syndrome to hemorrhagic fever and severe shock. Dengue fever is a self-limiting, nonspecific illness characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, and constitutional symptoms. Its severe forms (hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome) may lead to multisystem involvement and death. Early diagnosis, close monitoring for deterioration and response to treatment are necessary in all cases. WHO has provided a stepwise approach to management that is useful for milder forms and early shock. In the more severe forms aggressive fluid resuscitation and support for failing organs is necessary for the critically ill patient. Research addressing pathophysiological differences between dengue shock and septic shock, choice of fluids, inotropes and techniques of organ support are likely to yield benefits for the critically ill. CONCLUSIONS: There is no specific therapy for dengue infections. Good supportive care may be lifesaving, but ultimately initiatives aimed at vector control and prevention of mosquito bites may provide the greatest benefits.
Keywords : Dengue fever; sepsis; shock; hemorrhagic shock; fluid infusion.