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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
LOH, Lik Eng; CHAN, Yoke Hwee and CHAN, Irene. Noninvasive ventilation in children: a review. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2007, vol.83, n.2, suppl., pp. s91-s99. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572007000300011.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in children and its application in the acute and chronic setting of pediatric respiratory failure. SOURCES: Search of pertinent articles within Pubmed, Cochrane and Ovid MEDLINE databases from 1950 to 2007, using the keywords "pediatrics", "noninvasive ventilation" and "positive airway pressure". SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is a paucity of published data on pediatric NIV. The majority of the data available are case reports or small case series, with a number of small, randomized studies reported. CONCLUSION: Although the use of NIV is increasingly recognized in pediatrics, there are currently still no generally accepted guidelines for its use. In the chronic setting, its use has mainly been proven in obstructive sleep apnea and respiratory failure secondary to neuromuscular disorders. It would appear that the major challenge is ensuring compliance, and this can be enforced by patient/caregiver education, use of a suitable interface, heated humidifiers and by minimizing the side effects of NIV. In the setting of acute respiratory failure, it would appear from available data that success is usually predicted by the rapidity of response. Patients placed on NIV should be monitored closely and this mode of ventilation should be reviewed if there is a lack of response within a few hours after commencement of therapy.
Keywords : Noninvasive ventilation; children; respiratory failure; positive airway pressure.