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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
AFFONSECA, Carolina A. et al. Coagulation disorder in children and adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2007, vol.83, n.3, pp. 274-282. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572007000400014.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological profile of children and adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury admitted to an intensive care unit; to describe the frequency of coagulation disorders in these patients; to determine the relationship between coagulopathy and trauma severity; to assess the factors associated with coagulopathy; and to assess the effect of coagulopathy on the mortality of these patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 301 patients aged up to 16 years admitted to an intensive care unit due to moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, carried out over a 5-year period. The coagulation profile was associated with clinical, epidemiological and CT findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to check the association between coagulopathy and mortality. RESULTS: Minimum age was 23 days, and maximum age was 16 years (mean of 7.9 years). About 77% of patients had coagulopathy, whose occurrence was directly associated with the severity of the trauma, but not with the rise in mortality. The factors associated with the presence of coagulopathy were the following: severity of the traumatic brain injury (OR = 2.83; 95%CI 1.58-5.07), diagnosis of brain swelling on cranial computed tomography (OR = 2.11; 95%CI 1.13-4.07) and occurrence of chest and/or abdominal injury (OR = 2.07; 95%CI 1.11-4.00). Approximately 35% of patients died. The multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with an increased risk of death were presence of sodium disorders (OR = 5.56; 95%CI 2.90-10.65), hypotension in the intensive care unit (OR = 12.58; 95%CI 4.40-35.00) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 13.57; 95%CI 1.51-121.66). CONCLUSION:The development of coagulopathy is a frequent complication in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Even though it is not closely associated with death in this study, it may be regarded as a marker of injury severity.
Keywords : Traumatic brain injury; blood coagulation; child; adolescent.