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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
BRANCO, Ricardo Garcia et al. Glycemic control and insulin therapy in sepsis and critical illness. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2007, vol.83, n.5, suppl., pp. S128-S136. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572007000700003.
OBJECTIVE:To review the literature about the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia and glycemic control in children and adults with sepsis and critical illness. SOURCES: Non-systematic survey of the medical literature using MEDLINE and terms hyperglycemia, glycemic control, intensive insulin therapy, sepsis and intensive care. Articles were selected according to their relevance based on the authors' opinion. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Hyperglycemia is frequent in critically ill children and it is associated with worsened outcome. In adults, there is no consensus on the efficacy and safety of glycemic control. We describe the possible mechanisms involved in glucose toxicity and the beneficial effects of glycemic control. Initial studies showed that use of insulin to achieve glycemic control reduced morbidity and mortality in adult intensive care; however, recent studies have failed to confirm these findings. Importantly, it is evident that glycemic control is associated with increased incidence of hypoglycemia. The efficacy of glycemic control has not yet been studied in critically ill children. CONCLUSION: Glycemic control is a novel therapeutic option in critical care. Conflicting evidence in adults means that before we apply this approach to pediatrics it will need to be assessed in clinical trial.
Keywords : Hyperglycemia; glycemic control; glucose level; insulin therapy; intensive care; pediatric.