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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
MENDES, Thaís B.; MEZZACAPPA, Maria Aparecida M. S.; TORO, Adyléia A. D. C. and RIBEIRO, José Dirceu. Risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2008, vol.84, n.2, pp. 154-159. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.2223/JPED.1764.
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in 23 cases and 23 control subjects with bronchopulmonary dysplasia submitted to 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring between January 2001 and October 2005. Cases and controls were compared for gestational age, birth weight, gender, use of antenatal steroids, duration of assisted ventilation, duration of oxygen therapy, length of gastric tube use, administration of xanthines, postconceptual age, and weight at esophageal pH monitoring. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to establish the odds ratio(OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: None of the groups (with and without GERD) showed statistically significant differences in terms of demographic variables and postnatal outcome, use of antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids, or in terms of caffeine use and duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. However, feeding intolerance (OR = 6.55; 95%CI 1.05-40.8) and length of gastric tube use (OR = 1.67; 95%CI 1.11-2.51) turned out to be risk factors for GERD. Postconceptual age at the time of pH monitoring (OR = 0.02; 95%CI < 0.001-0.38) was regarded as a protective factor against GERD. CONCLUSION: The data obtained allow inferring that prolonged gastric tube use and feeding intolerance increase the risk for GERD. On the other hand, older postconceptual age at the time of pH monitoring reduces the risk for GERD in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia weighing less than 1,500 g.
Keywords : 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; gastroesophageal reflux disease; gastroesophageal reflux; very low birth weight infants; preterm infants.