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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
PEREIRA, Ricardo M.; BUCARETCHI, Fabio and TRESOLDI, Antonia T.. Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2008, vol.84, n.2, pp. 178-180. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572008000200015.
OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur was observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL), total leukocytes of 11,920 mm3, platelets of 250,000 mm3, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day) in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day). On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day). On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm3, platelets = 98,000 mm3, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day) was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae) in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate treatment.
Keywords : H. aphrophilus; endocarditis; ceftriaxone; ciprofloxacin; leukopenia; thrombocytopenia; hypoprothrombinemia.