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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
CASTRO, Priscilla Severino Gonçalves de and OLIVEIRA, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli. Prevention of atherosclerosis and drug treatment of high-risk lipid abnormalities in children and adolescents. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2009, vol.85, n.1, pp. 6-14. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.2223/JPED.1852.
OBJECTIVE: To discuss risk factors of atherosclerosis in pediatrics, dietary and physical activity guidelines, and, mainly, drug treatment of high-risk lipid abnormalities. SOURCES: Data were obtained from articles indexed in MEDLINE, published over the last 5 years. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Children with severe dyslipidemia or additional risk factors such as family history of early cardiovascular disease or other signs of metabolic syndrome may need treatment with hypolipidemic drugs. New recommendations from the U.S. guidelines indicate drug treatment before the age of 10 years according to the magnitude of the additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Pediatricians should know when to diagnose dyslipidemia, when to indicate drug treatment and which medication can be used in children and adolescents with the least risk or harm to their development. CONCLUSIONS: The first-line treatment of dyslipidemia consists of lifestyle changes, focusing on prevention. Children with high-risk lipid abnormalities should be considered for drug treatment. Decisions to be made together with the parents must be evaluated taking into consideration risks and benefits of the medication to the patient.
Keywords : Atherosclerosis; hypercholesterolemia; lipids; medication; pediatrics.