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Jornal de Pediatria
Print version ISSN 0021-7557On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
COCA, Kelly Pereira; GAMBA, Mônica Antar; SILVA, Rebeca de Souza e and ABRAO, Ana Cristina F. V.. Factors associated with nipple trauma in the maternity unit. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2009, vol.85, n.4, pp.341-345. ISSN 0021-7557. http://dx.doi.org/10.2223/JPED.1916.
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with nipple trauma in women breastfeeding exclusively in a maternity unit. METHODS: This was a case-control study that recruited 146 recently-delivered mothers in rooming-in wards: 73 cases, defined as women with nipple trauma, and 73 controls, defined as women free from this pathology. Women breastfeeding exclusively were tested daily for a diagnosis of nipple injury, identified using a magnifying glass. Sociodemographic, obstetric and neonatal variables were studied. A logistic regression model was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Cases and controls proved to be comparable in terms of their sociodemographic variables, although the women with nipple trauma were more likely not to be living with a partner. The following variables were found to be factors associated with nipple trauma: primiparity (OR 3.16; 95%CI 1.19-8.42), not living with a partner (OR 3.25; 95%CI 1.18-8.93), turgid and/or engorged breasts (OR 12.31; 95%CI 4.48-33.78), semi-protruding and/or malformed nipples (OR 4.69; 95%CI 1.50-14.62), and depigmentation of nipples (OR 13.98; 95%CI 4.43-44.06). CONCLUSION: Primiparity, not living with a partner, turgid and/or engorged breasts, semi-protruding and/or malformed nipples, and depigmentated nipples are associated with nipple trauma.
Keywords : Nipple injury; breastfeeding; case-control studies; risk factors; women's health.