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Jornal de Pediatria
On-line version ISSN 1678-4782
VILAS BOAS, Luciana T.; ALBERNAZ, Elaine P. and COSTA, Rafaéla Gonçalves. Prevalence of congenital heart defects in patients with Down syndrome in the municipality of Pelotas, Brazil. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2009, vol.85, n.5, pp. 403-407. ISSN 1678-4782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572009000500006.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of congenital heart defects in patients with Down syndrome in the municipality of Pelotas, Brazil, describing the most frequent types and assessing the associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including children with Down syndrome who were born and lived in Pelotas from January 2000 to December 2005. Data were collected by means of home interviews with mothers or guardians. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out to analyze the factors related to congenital heart defect. RESULTS: Forty-seven mothers of patients with Down syndrome were interviewed. Twenty-two (46.8%) of the patients had a diagnosis of congenital heart defect. Of them, 28% had early cardiac evaluation before 3 months of life. The most frequent heart defect was interatrial communication (17%); atrioventricular septal defect affected five patients. Bivariate analysis between the outcome congenital heart defect and the predicting factors maternal age, paternal age, parents' and child's skin color, presence of other malformations and child's sex showed that the associations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Down syndrome and congenital heart defects in our region is similar to the rates found by other authors; therefore, we highlight the importance of diagnostic suspicion and early referral by pediatricians to cardiac evaluation. Another relevant aspect is the small number of patients who underwent karyotype testing. In addition, the number of associated malformations was lower than that found by other authors.
Keywords : Down syndrome; congenital hear defect; prevalence.