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Jornal de Pediatria
Print version ISSN 0021-7557
MUCHAO, Fábio Pereira and SILVA FILHO, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da. Advances in inhalation therapy in pediatrics. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2010, vol.86, n.5, pp. 367-376. ISSN 0021-7557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572010000500004.
OBJECTIVES: To review the most relevant articles regarding the technical aspects of inhalation therapy, inhalers currently available, and especially major advances in inhalation therapy in pediatrics. SOURCES: Articles of MEDLINE database from 1983 were reviewed, in addition to book chapters, and the most important studies were selected according to the criteria established for this article. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Conventional nebulizers have a number of inconveniences, and breath-enhanced and breath-actuated inhalers are more attractive options. Among dry powder inhalers, we highlight those using passive and active powder dispersion mechanisms, which provide higher rates of drug deposition in the lung. Among pressurized metered-dose inhalers, we highlight breath-actuated, breath-coordinated, and velocity-modifying inhalers. These inhalers should be used preferably together with spacers, since the use of spacers produces a twofold increase in pulmonary drug deposition. CONCLUSIONS: For children younger than 8 years, pressurized metered-dose inhalers with spacers are the most appropriate devices, since they provide a practical approach associated with greater lung deposition. In children older than 8 years who can generate high inspiratory flow rates, dry powder devices are best suited.
Keywords : Nebulizers; pressurized metered-dose inhalers; dry powder inhalers; spacers; pulmonary drug deposition.