Jornal de Pediatria
Print version ISSN 0021-7557
ROSADO, Viviane; ROMANELLI, Roberta M. de C. and CAMARGOS, Paulo A. M.. Risk factors and preventive measures for catheter-related bloodstream infections. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2011, vol.87, n.6, pp. 469-477. ISSN 0021-7557. http://dx.doi.org/10.2223/JPED.2134.
OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection and the recommendations for its prevention. SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration and Bireme were reviewed using the following inclusion criteria: studies published between 2000 and 2010, study design, hospitalized pediatric population with central venous catheters and studies about central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection. In addition, reference documents were retrieved from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Associated risk factors were: duration of central venous catheter use; length of hospitalization time; long-term indwelling central venous catheter; insertion of central venous catheter in intensive care unit; nonoperative cardiovascular disease; parenteral nutrition; and administration of blood products. The preventive measures recommended by studies in the literature are: development of records and multidisciplinary guidelines of care for central venous catheter insertion and maintenance; correct use of central venous catheter insertion technique; use of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings; early catheter removal; and adoption of continued education programs for the healthcare team. CONCLUSION: The control of risk factors may lead to a reduction of 40% or greater in the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infection. Insertion surveillance and special attention to central venous catheter in pediatric populations should guide the standardization of healthcare routines to achieve standards for comparisons within and between institutions.
Keywords : Infection; central venous catheter; surveillance.