Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Print version ISSN 0034-7094
IMBELLONI, Luiz Eduardo; BEATO, Lúcia and GOUVEIA, M.A.. Unilateral spinal anesthesia with hypobaric bupivacaine. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2002, vol.52, n.5, pp. 542-548. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942002000500004.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Restricted sympathetic block during spinal anesthesia may minimize hemodynamic changes. In theory, the use of non-isobaric local anesthetics may induce unilateral anesthesia and limit sympathetic blockade to one side of the body. The local anesthetic dose and the time patients need to remain in the lateral position for achieving unilateral spinal anesthesia are not known. This prospective study investigated the incidence of unilateral spinal anesthesia following injection through a 27G Quincke needle of 0.15% hypobaric bupivacaine, prepared with 1.5 ml standard isobaric bupivacaine plus fentanyl (25 µg), in patients in the lateral position with the limb to be operated upwards. METHODS: Spinal anesthesia with 0.15% bupivacaine + fentanyl (25 µg) was induced through a 27G Quincke needle in 22 ASA I and II patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Dural puncture was performed with the patient in the lateral position with the side to be operated upwards. After removal of 3 to 5 ml of CSF, 5 ml of the hypobaric bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture were injected at a speed of 1 ml.15 s-1. Sensory and motor block (pinprick/scale 0 to 3) were compared between operated and contralateral sides. RESULTS: Motor and sensory blocks in operated and contralateral sides were significantly different in all moments for both groups. Unilateral spinal anesthesia was obtained in 71% of the patients. No hemodynamic changes were observed in any patient. No patient developed post-dural puncture headache. CONCLUSIONS: Hypobaric 0.15% bupivacaine (7.5 mg) associated to fentanyl provided a predominantly unilateral block after twenty minutes in the lateral position. Major advantages of unilateral spinal anesthesia were hemodynamic stability, patient satisfaction and the absence of post-dural puncture headache.
Keywords : ANALGESICS [Opioids]; ANALGESICS [fentanyl]; ANESTHETICS [Local]; ANESTHETICS [hypobaric bupivacaine]; ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES [Regional]; ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES [spinal block].