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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
BRAZ, José Reinaldo Cerqueira et al. Effects of clonidine associated to hyperbaric bupivacaine during high-level spinal anesthesia. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2003, vol.53, n.5, pp. 561-572. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942003000500002.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Published data suggest that clonidine, an a2-adrenergic agonist, in association with bupivacaine, may increase the incidence of intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia during high-level spinal anesthesia. This study aimed at determining the synergistic potential of two clonidine doses (45 and 75 µg) and hyperbaric bupivacaine on characteristics and hemodynamic effects of high-level (T4) spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Participated in this randomized double-blind study, 60 ASA I patients scheduled for lower abdominal and limb surgery. Spinal anesthesia was induced with 17.5 mg (3.5 ml) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine plus the association of the following drugs: Control group (n = 20) - 0.5 ml isotonic saline solution; Clon 45 group (n = 20) - 45 µg (0.3 ml) clonidine + 0.2 ml isotonic saline solution; and Clon 75 (n = 20) - 75 µg (0.5 ml) clonidine. Surgery was only started when high-level (T4) analgesia was consistently obtained. RESULTS: Sensory and motor block onset did not significantly differ among groups (p > 0.05). Both clonidine doses significantly prolonged analgesic block at T8 and motor block level 3 duration (determined by modified Bromage scale) (p < 0.05). Intraoperative arterial hypotension was observed only in Clon 75 group as compared to Control group (p < 0.05), while Clon 45 group had intermediate incidence between both groups. There was no significant difference among groups in bradycardia (p > 0.05). Both clonidine doses prolonged postoperative analgesia (time from spinal block to first postoperative analgesic request) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High clonidine dose (75 µg) associated to hyperbaric bupivacaine during high-level spinal anesthesia (T4) induces a higher incidence of arterial hypotension but prolongs sensory block and postoperative analgesia similar to lower clonidine dose (45 µg) during upper spinal anesthesia.
Keywords : ANALGESICS [clonidine]; ANESTHETICS [Local]; ANESTHETICS [bupivacaine]; ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES [Regional]; ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES [spinal block].