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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
ARAUJO, Daniele Ribeiro de; PINTO, Luciana de Matos Alves; BRAGA, Angélica de Fátima de Assunção and PAULA, Eneida de. Drug-delivery systems for local anesthetics: therapeutic applications. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2003, vol.53, n.5, pp. 663-671. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942003000500014.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many researchers in the last four decades have been devoted to the development of drug-delivery systems. Since its first application in the pharmaceutical industry, many results have been obtained especially in the molecular manipulation of carriers and their interaction with encapsulated drugs. These new carriers have the advantage of bypassing encapsulated drugs restraining physicochemical properties (such as water or membrane solubility), thus improving pharmacodynamics (therapeutic effect potentiation), pharmacokinetics (control of tissue absorption and distribution) and toxic effects (lower local and systemic toxicity). Liposomes and cyclodextrins are among the most important carriers which have shown to be quite advantageous in the development of drug-delivery systems for local anesthetics. This study aimed at reviewing the interaction of local anesthetics with liposomes and cyclodextrins, the development of basic and applied research on the field, in addition to therapeutic applicability of these formulations. CONTENTS: Liposomes have the ability to control drug delivery to target tissues, fractionating drug release in its site of action. Cyclodextrins, on the other hand, change intensity and duration of effects due to low systemic drug absorption. Basic and clinical studies have pointed out that the administration of local anesthetics in liposome or cyclodextrin formulations induces slow release of the drugs, prolonging the anesthetic action and decreasing cardiac and nervous systems toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies are still in progress, drug-delivery systems are flagging a new direction for the development of safer and more effective local anesthetic formulations.
Keywords : ANESTHETICS [Local].