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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Print version ISSN 0034-7094
DUVAL NETO, Gastão Fernandes and NIENCHESKI, Augusto H.. Analysis of brain hemometabolism behavior during carotid endarterectomy with temporary clamping. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2004, vol.54, n.2, pp. 162-177. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942004000200004.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carotid endarterectomy with temporary clamping changes cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic oxygen demand ratio with consequent oligemic hypoxia or hemometabolic uncoupling. This study aimed at identifying changes in brain hemometabolism, evaluated through changes in oxyhemoglobin saturation in internal jugular vein bulb (SvjO2) during carotid endarterectomy with clamping, and at correlating these changes with potentially interfering factors, mainly end tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). METHODS: Sixteen patients with unilateral carotid stenotic disease scheduled to carotid endarterectomy with carotid arterial clamping were enrolled in this study. Parameters including internal jugular bulb oxyhemoglobin saturation, stump pressure and end tidal CO2 pressure were measured at the following moments: M1 - pre-clamping; M2 - 3 minutes after clamping; M3 - pre-unclamping; M4 - post-unclamping). RESULTS: The comparison among SvjO2 (%, mean ± SD) in all studied periods has shown differences between those recorded in moments M1 (52.25 ± 7.87) and M2 (47.43 ± 9.19). This initial decrease stabilized during temporary clamping, showing decrease in the comparison between M2 and M3 (46.56 ± 9.25), without statistical significance (p = ns). At post-unclamping, M4 (47.68 ± 9.12), SvjO2 was increased as compared to M2 and M3 clamping stages, however it was still lower than that of pre-clamping stage M1.(M4 x M1 - p < 0.04) This SvjO2 decrease was followed by significant cerebral perfusion pressure (stump pressure) decrease. Factors influencing this brain hemometabolic uncoupling trend were correlated to PETCO2. The comparison between CPP and SvjO2 showed weak correlation devoid of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In the conditions of our study, SvjO2 measurement is a fast and effective way of clinically monitoring changes in CBF/CMRO2 ratio. Temporary carotid clamping implies in a trend towards brain hemometabolic uncoupling and, as a consequence, to oligemic ischemia; cerebral perfusion pressure does not assesses brain hemometabolic status (CBF and CMRO2 ratio); hypocapnia, may lead to brain hemometabolic uncoupling; PETCO2 monitoring is an innocuous and efficient way to indirectly monitor PaCO2 preventing inadvertent hypocapnia and its deleterious effects on CBF/CMRO2 ratio during temporary carotid clamping.
Keywords : MONITORING [jugular bulb oxyhemoglobin saturation]; MONITORING [brain oximetry]; SURGERY [Vascular]; SURGERY [carotid endarterectomy].