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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
MORO, Eduardo Toshiyuki and MODOLO, Norma Sueli Pinheiro. Rapid sequence induction of anesthesia. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2004, vol.54, n.4, pp. 595-606. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942004000400015.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rapid sequence induction anesthesia is primarily used to protect airways when there is gastric content aspiration risk. This study aimed at reviewing the technique and different protocols looking for the rational use of available drugs, in the search for ideal tracheal intubation conditions without increasing the risk of gastric content aspiration or other complications. CONTENTS: A technical review of rapid sequence induction of anesthesia is presented, emphasizing the rational use of hypnotics, opioids and neuromuscular blockers (NMB) to shorten the period between loss of consciousness and correct tracheal tube positioning, that is, shorten the period of highest risk for aspiration while maintaining excellent intubation conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal intubation after rapid sequence induction of anesthesia is indicated for patients at risk for gastric content aspiration without suspicion of difficult intubation. The adequate indication of the technique, its judicious application and the rational use of available drugs may promote excellent intubation conditions, with fast onset, early return to consciousness and spontaneous breathing in case of tracheal intubation failure.
Keywords : ANALGESICS [Opioids]; ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES [Venous]; ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES [rapid sequence]; NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKERS.