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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
SOUZA, Kleber Machareth de; ANZOATEGUI, Luiz César; PEDROSO, Washington Cássio Justino and GEMPERLI, Werner Alfred. Dexmedetomidine in general anesthesia for surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysm in pregnant patient with specific hypertensive disease of pregnancy: case report. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2005, vol.55, n.2, pp.212-216. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942005000200008.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The incidence of non-obstetrical surgeries in pregnant patients is about 0.36% to 2%. However, surgeries aiming at surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysm in pregnant women are extremely rare. Specific hypertensive disease of pregnancy, shows clinical prevalence of 10%. It is a disease with high clinical complexity compromising multiple organs and systems. Dexmedetomidine, a2-adrenoceptor agonist drug, in therapeutic clinical doses has major selectivity for these receptors and promotes suitable hemodynamic stability if used in the preoperative period. The purpose of this report was to present an anesthetic technique able to provide adequate maintenance of maternal homeostasis, preserving to the highest level uterus-placental blood flow and fetal vitality, without neglecting fundamental aspects regarding the optimization of brain oxygen supply/demand ratio and favorable brain tissue conditions for surgical management. CASE REPORT: Pregnant patient, 19 years old, 27 weeks of gestation, was referred to the operating room for surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysm. In the preoperative period she was conscious, oriented, eupneic but with left side motor deficit and clinical signs compatible with toxemia of pregnancy. Dexmedetomidine (1 µg.kg-1.h-1) was administered in 20 minutes, followed by anesthetic induction with propofol (2.5 mg.kg-1), fentanyl (7.5 µg.kg-1), lidocaine (1 mg.kg-1) and rocuronium (1.2 mg.kg-1) in rapid sequence. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol (50 µg.kg-1.min-1), alfentanil (1 µg.kg-1.min-1) and dexmedetomi- dine (0.7 µg.kg-1.h-1). Surgical procedure went on with no complications, including brain sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: This case report has shown that dexmedetomidine made possible the handling of hemodynamic responses, keeping optimized uterus-placental blood flow and fetal vitality. Adequate conditions of surgical brain tissue manipulation and the absence of influence in postoperative morbidity are also emphasized.
Keywords : ANESTHESIA [General]; DISEASES [specific hypertensive pregnancy]; DRUGS [dexmedetomidine]; SURGERY [Neurosurgical]; SURGERY [aneurysm].