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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
FRAGA, Adilson O. et al. Anesthetic induction after treated hemorrhagic shock: experimental study comparing ketamine and etomidate. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2006, vol.56, n.4, pp. 377-390. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942006000400006.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bleeding causing hemorrhagic shock usually requires surgical treatment under general anesthesia. Anesthetic drugs may further compromise hemodynamics. The objective was to compare the hemodynamic effects of ketamine and etomidate during anesthetic induction in dogs submitted to an experimental model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. METHODS: Thirty-two mongrel dogs were submitted to a pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock, resuscitation and anesthetic induction model. After achieving the target pressure of 40 mmHg, they were randomly assigned in two groups according to the resuscitation fluid to be used: NaCl 0.9% (32 mL.kg-1) and NaCl 7.5% (4 mL.kg-1). After volume infusion, these groups were reassigned according to anesthetic drug used: GI) NaCl 0.9% and ketamine; GII) NaCl 7.5% and ketamine; GIII) NaCl 0.9% and etomidate; and GIV) NaCl 7.5% and etomidate. Hemodynamic measurements were obtained at five moments: (M0) baseline; (M1) after bleeding to shock; (M2) after volume expansion; (M3) 5 minutes after anesthetic induction; (M4) 15 minutes after anesthetic induction. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t test and two way ANOVA. Value of p lower than 0.05, was considered significant. RESULTS: After shock, both solutions restored hemodynamics to baseline values. Independently of anesthetic agent or expansion solution used, mean arterial pressure remained unaltered for all groups after induction. Central venous pressure, heart rate, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index increased significantly after ketamine infusion. Cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index and oxygen transport variables remained stable in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Etomidate or ketamine were able to maintain hemodynamic stability in dogs undergoing severe hemorrhagic shock treated with NaCl 0.9% or NaCl 7.5%.
Keywords : ANIMALS [dogs]; COMPLICATIONS [hemorrhagic shock]; DRUGS [etomidate, ketamine]; THERAPEUTIC [volemic resuscitation]; VOLEMIA [0.9% saline solution, 7.5% NaCl].