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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Print version ISSN 0034-7094
VALADARES, Friederike Wolff; LORENTZ, Michelle Nacur; HEYDEN, Eliana G. and VAL FILHO, José Aloysio Costa. Anesthesia for endoscopic ventriculostomy for the treatment of hydrocephalus: case report. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2007, vol.57, n.1, pp. 83-89. ISSN 0034-7094. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942007000100009.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is becoming routine among neurosurgical pediatric procedures. However, reports on anesthesia for children undergoing such procedures are rare. The aim of this series of cases was to demonstrate the precautions that should be taken and efficacy of the method used. CASE REPORT: Thirty-eight children younger than 2 years, who underwent neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus from 1999 to 2004 at the Biocor Instituto were evaluated retrospectively. The diagnosis, comorbidities, age, weight, anesthetic technique, monitoring, and intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated. Patients, ages 1 week to 20 months, presented obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to compression of the aqueduct of different etiologies. In thirty-five children anesthesia was induced by inhalational anesthetics and in 3 by intravenous anesthetics. Thirty-four patients were monitored with electrocardiogram, pulse oxymeter, capnograph, and esophageal thermometer, while in 4 children it included also continuous invasive blood pressure monitoring. Fifteen patients had balanced maintenance anesthesia with fentanyl and isoflurane, and 23 children received inhalational isoflurane. Thirty-five children were extubated after the procedure in the surgical room and three in the ICU. Six patients were transferred to the ICU after extubation. The following complications were observed: intraoperative cardiac arrhythmias without hemodynamic repercussions (6 cases); two patients presented intraoperative bleeding, but in only one the placement of an external derivation was necessary. The postoperative complications included: vomiting (6), fever (4), seizures (2), laryngeal spasm (1), and stridor (1). CONCLUSIONS: Third ventriculostomy has a low incidence of complications, even in patients younger than 24 months, as long as proper anesthetic and surgical procedures are used.
Keywords : ANESTHESIA, Pediatric; DISEASES, congenital [hidrocephalus]; SURGERY, Neurosurgery [ventriculostomy].