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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
SILVA, Yerkes Pereira e; GOMEZ, Renato Santiago; MAXIMO, Thadeu Alves and SILVA, Ana Cristina Simões e. Sedation and analgesia in neonatology. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2007, vol.57, n.5, pp. 575-587. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942007000500013.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study of pain in neonatology is important because pain and stress mean suffering and discomfort for newborns and, despite it, very little has been done to minimize them. In this revision we discuss: prevention of pain, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment, and sedation in newborns. CONTENTS: Several non-pharmacological measures can be taken to prevent pain in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, and to humanize and reduce the stress on the environment for patients and their families. Pain treatment in the newborn consists of non-pharmacological (non-nutritive suckling, glucose) and pharmacological (non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and local anesthetics) measures. Sedation in the newborn is achieved with drugs that decrease activity, anxiety, and agitation of the patient, and that could lead to amnesia of painful and non-painful events. Sedation can be accomplished with chloral hydrate, barbiturates, propofol, and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of pain and the indication of analgesia should be individualized and always considered in every newborn with potentially painful disorders and/or undergoing invasive procedures, surgical or not.
Keywords : ANALGESICS, Opioids [morphine, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, remifentanil]; ANALGESICS [Non-opioids: paracetamol, dipyrone, indomethacin]; ANESTHETICS [Local]; PAIN, Treatment [non-pharmacologic, pharmacologic]; SEDATION [newborn].