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Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-907X
MARANHAO, Marcius Vinícius M.. Turner syndrome and anesthesia. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. [online]. 2008, vol.58, n.1, pp. 84-89. ISSN 1806-907X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-70942008000100012.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Turner syndrome is a frequent and complex genetic abnormality affecting women, being associated with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological changes, especially related with the airways and cardiovascular system. The objective of this report was to review the anatomopathologic changes of this syndrome that concern the anesthesiologist the most, discuss the perioperative management and review the literature regarding the anesthetic conduct in those patients. CONTENTS: Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by an abnormality in the number or morphology of the sex chromosome. The most frequent abnormality is the absence of a sex chromosome, resulting in the 45X karyotype and a phenotype composed of gonadal dysgenesis. The main anatomo-physiological changes pertaining the anesthesiologist include a short neck, and maxillary and mandibular hipoplasia, which might be responsible for difficult airways. The shorter length of the trachea, as well as the higher location of its bifurcation, can predispose to bronchial intubation and accidental endotracheal extubation when the tracheal cannula is under traction. The presence of cardiopathies, endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders, liver and kidney changes, as well as osteoarticular involvement, besides ophthalmologic and hearing impairments, are very frequent, and should be detected during the pre-anesthetic evaluation. General or regional anesthesia seems to be safe for those patients. CONCLUSIONS: Turner syndrome is a genetic abnormality with important anatomo-physiological abnormalities important to the anesthesiologist. The knowledge of this disorder allows for a safer anesthetic management with low perioperative morbimortality.
Keywords : COMPLICATIONS [intubation]; DISEASES, Genetic [Turner syndrome].